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Chapter 7 Study Guide
Terms in this set (64)
What effects did the Embargo Acts of 1807 and the War of 1812 have on Americans involved in shipping and foreign trade?
The American industry collapsed. The embargo act of 1807 ended American shipping and trade
Which two Eli Whitney inventions influenced the progression of the United States economy and industry? How?
Eli Whitney intended the cotton gin. It allows farmers to grow cotton for profit. It cleaned cotton by removing the seeds. He also invented interchangeable parts. It made the south grow Bc it grew the agriculture and made it easier to pick cotton
Why did manufacturing develop in New England? Give specific examples to support your reasoning.
New England depended greatly on shipping & foreign trade for income, with the Embargo Act & the War of 1812, New England had to look elsewhere for profit
How did the economic systems of the North and South differ in the early 1800s? What problems did theses differences cause?
North: Based on industry and factories
South: Based on agriculture and farming
Problem: South sold raw materials to North, North finished them and sold them back to the South over-priced (like Britain).
Explain the basic ideas in Henry Clay's American System. What goals did Clay hope to accomplish through the American System?
-developing a transportation system
- establishing a protective tariff
- bringing back the national bank
What was the Tariff of 1816 and how did it effect the nation's economy?
the Tariff of 1816 proposed extra import tax on goods coming in from exterior manufacturers, especially UK
- the tariff was passed when British goods overwhelmed US-made goods
What were some of the effects of building the Erie Canal?
- It opened direct trade between the Great Lakes and New York City.
- The Great Lakes region grew.
- It increased trade on the Mississippi.
- Northerners were able to move west more efficiently and in greater numbers.
- More people were available to man factories.
In what ways did the Supreme Court boost Federal Power from 1810-1825?
What was the "Era of Good Feeling",and how did it earn its name?
The era of good feeling is applied to describe the "mood" of the US after the war of 1812 ended, there was a lower level of concern over foreign affairs
What agreements did Congress reach in 1820 that are regarded as the Missouri Compromise? Explain completely.
Explain how the Monroe Doctrine and the Missouri Compromise promoted nationalism.
Why was the Missouri Compromise of 1820-1821 necessary? What did the Missouri Compromise accomplish?
It balanced the north and the south politics and preserved the unity. It accomplished that Missouri was made a slave state, the southern border was used as a dividing line, we also gained Maine as a free state
Why was the election of John Quincy Adams in
John Quincy Adams did not win the popular or electoral vote. He still won Bc Henry clay sided with him. Adams then made clay his Secretary of State and everyone said it was a corrupt bargain
What factor, in relation to the American voters, caused Andrew Jackson's loss in the Election of 1824? How did this change by the next election in 1828, which enabled him to win a landslide victory?
The final vote was cast in the house of rep. This changed in 1728 Bc any white man could vote even if they did not own land
1)standardized parts that can be used in place of another
2)created by Whitney used for muskets
Tariff of 1816
A protective tariff that helped American industry by raising the prices of British goods which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those of the U.S.
1) The loyalty of a people to their common culture, traditions, ethnicity, geographic territory, and the idea of self-rule
2) Pride in one's country or culture
Democratic Republican Party
1) Party led by Jefferson that opposed the Federalists and favored a weak central government, protecting states' rights, low taxes, and a strict view of the Constitution. Pro-farmer and pro-France.
Tariff of Abominations
AKA Tariff of 1828; raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South. The South claimed that it was discriminatory and unconstitutional
the production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line
1) First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
2) The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Indian Removal Act
Law passed by Congress in 1830 and supported by President Andrew Jackson allowing the U.S. government to remove the Native Americans from their eastern homelands and force them to move west of the Mississippi River. Many tribes signed treaties and agreed to voluntary removal, while others were forced.
Panic of 1837
Financial crisis in the US built on a speculative fever; May 10, 1837 New York City- every band began to accept payment only in specie (gold and silver coinage); based on the assumption by former president Andrew Jackson that the government was selling lad for state bank notes of questionable value; Panic followed a 5-year depression with the failure of banks and record high unemployment levels.
the rapid development of industry that occurred in the late 18th and 19th centuries. It was characterized by the use of steam power, the growth of factories, and the mass production of manufactured goods.
It is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean It cut transport costs into what was then wilderness by about 90%. The Canal resulted in a massive population surge in western New York, and opened regions further west to increased settlement
Agreement made to keep the balance of slave and free states equal. Missouri was added as a slave state and Maine added as a free state in 1821.
Trail of Tears
The land and water route used by the US government to forcefully remove thousands of Cherokee Indians from their homes between Georgia and Oklahoma. Along the way, over 4,000 Indians died.
Bank of the United States (BUS)
Hamilton had created, taking the model of the Bank of England. He proposed a powerful private institution, of which the government would be the major stockholder and in which the federal Treasury would deposit its surplus monies.
The three-part plan developed by Henry Clay that stressed a strong banking system, protective tariffs, and a network of roads and canals. Clay's plan was essential in developing a profitable home market. This home market enabled America to become a self-sufficient, isolated country,
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Resulted in more cotton production and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields.
The spoils system was a method of appointing officials to the government of the United States of America based on political connections rather than on impersonal measures of merit. The name was derived from the phrase "to the victor go the spoils".
political party that had no stand on slavery, was elected because people did not want to rock the boat and have war, An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
William Henry Harrison
Was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe. (9th President)
Francis Cabot Lowell
A former Boston importer who smuggled British textile factory designs back to America, and built the world's first factory capable of converting raw cotton into cloth by power machinery under one roof. Created a work force almost entirely of unmarried women, in a healthy, wholesome environment.
He served in the Continental Army during the Revolution. In the 1790s he had embraced the Federalist Party. Marshall tossed the Republicans a few crumbs by ruling that the Supreme Court could not compel Madison to deliver Marbury's commission. Then he argued that the Court could not issue a writ of mandamus in its original jurisdiction. The 1st time the court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Leading American statesman during the Antebellum Period; leader of the Whig Party, opposed Jackson and the Democratic Party; spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry; served in the House of Representatives, Senate, and Secretary of State for 3 presidents; successful lawyer; member of the Great Triumvirate with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
Father of the factory system; stole plans from British mechanic and escaped to America; got capital from Moses Brown (quaker); first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845. President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk. Whig, but opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
John C. Calhoun
Vice President under Andrew Jackson; leading Southern politician; began his political career as a nationalist and an advocate of protective tariffs, later he becomes an advocate of free trade, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." (responsible for the Missouri Compromise). Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Known as "Old Hickory"; hates the British and the Indians; war hero in the Battle of New Orleans; defeated Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; believed in the Common Man; reduced voting restrictions; 7th president; "Good Ole Boy System"; Indian Removal Act; Trail of Tears; Worcester v. Georgia
Martin Van Buren
created the system of party government. claimed that political parties were necessary to "check" the government from abusing its power. created the first political machine. denounced the American System and opposed the Whigs. (Jackson's successor)
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it; He was an American financier who was also president of the Bank of the United States. He was also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He also showed the corruption of the bank.
Describe two factors that contributed to feelings of nationalism in the early 1800s and two facts that contributed to feelings of sectionalism. Explain your answers.
In what ways did Andrew Jackson's presidency mark a new era in national politics?
He expanded the amount of people allowed to vote beyond the wealthy and gave more power to the common people
What political party was formed by supporters of Andrew Jackson?
What was Andrew Jacksons spoils system and who befitted from this system and why?
In whose favor did the supreme court rule in Worcester v. Georgia?
What was Andrew Jackson's response to the ruling in Worcester v. Georgia?
Andrew Jackson defended the Indiana Removal Act, arguing that Naive Americans could not be assimilated, that their lands could not be protected from white settlers, and that moving Native Americans to theWest would allow them to maintain their ways of life. Do you agree with theses points? Explain your opinion.
Which Native Americans group walked the Trail of Tears?
What act of Congress eventually led to the Trail of Tears?
What was the result of the Trail of Tears?
What was the original goal of the Tariff of Abominations? Was it successful? Why or why not?
Descibe John C. Calhoun's argument behind his nullification theory?
How was the nullification theory an expression of states rights?
What were Jackson's positions on the nullification theory and the national bank? What did he do to defend theses positions?
Who created the Whig Party and what led to its creation?
How did Jackson's political actions in office hurt the nation's economy even after he stepped down as President?
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