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AAMC sample MCAT 3/25/17
Terms in this set (97)
competitive inhibitor. compound 1 binds to the transition state of HIV protease, blocking the enzyme and serving to treat the infection
If you have n chiral centers, then you have 2^n possible stereoisomers. In this case there were 5 chiral centers, so 32 possible stereoisomers
when [ca2+][c2o42-] exceeds the solubility constant you will have a precipitate
Pro and Phe
Amino acid recognition. Proline has an internal loop (P, pro), Phenylanine is a benzine ring (Phe, F)
electric field lines
axons are negative. extracellular fluid neutral, so field lines will point toward axons
INSULATE the axons from the surroundings. helps propagate nerve impulses
voltage change distance in a nerve
here we are given a time of 1 msec and speed of 100 m/s, so it will travel 0.1 m
I= V/R. So we would need to know R (resistance per unit length), the length, and the potential V to calculate the current
partially ionized to form hydrogen ions
oxyacid vs base
No2(OH) dissolves to generate an acidic solution, so the bods between O and H break, making it an oxyacid. Ni(OH)2 is insoluble in neutral water, but breaks the bonds between Ni and O in acidic solution, making it basic.
Acids include non-metals in the general formula and produce an acidic solution when dissolved
precursor to steroid hormones. 50ring structure of cholesterol
concentrations of ion
Ca Cl2 means it produces twice as many Cl- ions as CA2+ ions
sucrose does not possess a hemiacetal functional group, does not undergo mutorotation, and will not be oxidized by Ag+. Saccharides undergo mutorotations if they are capable of ring opening with an aldehyde intermediate (a reduced sugar).
Compound 2 is more polar than compound 1 bc of methyl hydroxylation. In REVERSE PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHY the more POLAR one will elute first though its usually the opposite.
line weaver-burk plot
different V maxes (noncompetitive inhibition) means different Vmax value for each (so different Y-intercept values bc its 1/Vmax)
gets oxidized (lose H)
pressure in buret
liquid inside would be higher because the air pressure outside is higher than inside. Pressure builds on the inside by raising the liquid level and it will stop raising when PV inside= pv outside
ideal gas law
density of human blood
m= (density) (V) = 1060 (kg/m^3) x 5L x 1000cm^3/L x 1m^3/ 10^6 cm^3) = 5.3 kg
needs speed of the sound, frequencies of the sound waves emitted and observed. doppler effect relates frequency of detected wave when source is stationary, speed of source, and speed of detector
principal quantum number
approximate radial size of an electron cloud. n= potential energy of the electron
competitive inhibitor of ibuprofen
palmitoleic acid- hydrocarbon tail and a carboxylic acid
binding site of CPFX to BSA
primarily site 1. Warfarin competes for binding in the amount of more than 50%. Binding of CPFX to BSA occurs primarily at site 1.
site 1 and 2 which amino acids
R and L because anionic and hydrophobic. READ TEXT they mention this
density of wire at 473 k
d= m/v = 4x 10^-3kg/ 5 x 10^-7 m^3 = 8000 kg/m^3
(4x10^-3kg) (460 J/kg k) (200k) = 0.8 x 460 J = 368 J
wire heated from 293 k to 673 K while V was held constant at 28 V. What was the current?
temperature is 673/293 or about 2.3 for resistance. so 4.6/2.3 = 2 for the new current
C2, 4, 5 following decarboxylation
mevalonate compound closed structure
it will form a lactone bc you have a -co2h and -oh group so will lose a water. also 6 member ring more thermo favorable to a 4 member ring
infrared absorption spectrums
1700-1750 c=o, 3200-3500 and flat for o-h
single stereoisomer formed
when the ENZYME/catalyst is chiral
nearsightedness. to correct you need a DIVERGING lens that will spread out the light before it reaches the lens of the eye which will cause light to focus on a point closer to the retina
sublimation under reduced pressure. will keep the mixture cold and maintain the protein in its native state
density of human body in water/ air
w air / (w air- w water)
stabilization of pantothenate in PanK3
aspartate- has carboxylic side chain. His 11 and Arg 27 have positive charge that will interact favorably
oxidate NADH to NAD+. READ THE PASSAGE
frequency of gamma protons
negative beta decay
emits an electron
doppler ultrasound benefit
can measure blood flow. Takes advantage of movement, so can track flow of blood in a vessel
power = work/ time, so w=pt = (30 W)(180 sec)= 5400 J
within one ph of the experiment
ARf1 is closely related to what
nucleotides because it is like GTP (guanosine triphosphate)
CLEAVES a phosphate using water hydrolysis. GAP is this. Opposite of kinase which adds on a phosphate.
proteins encapsulated in Arf1- COP derived vesicles are bound for the
endoplasmic reticulum. COP does retrograde transport. so it is carrying stuff back to the ER
neutrophil beta subunits
adhere neutrophils to the endothelium. damaging effects of neutrophils occurs after their adhesion to vascular endothelium. inactivation of the beta subunit by antibody B results in great reduction in tissue injury so it may be the cause
why can't use mouse antibody in humans
humans will read it as an antigen and make antibodies against it
normal sons bons to hemophilliac fathers and hemophiliac daughters born to normal fathers. In X linked inheritance, a mother homozygous for a recessive X linked gene will always pass that recessive gene to her son. a daughter gets one X from each parents, so if her daughter is normal she can't not be.
between DNA and mRNA. BACTERIA can't do this
slightly basic, so lower concentration of H+ (aq) ions
in oxidative phosphorylation cytochrome C is an 1-electron carrier. Cytochrome c is a heme protein that only cycles between ferrous and ferric
suitable primers have high GC content and G or C base pairs at the 5' and 3' ends.
in which phase of meiosis does nondisjunction occur?
ANAPHASE 1 . by definition nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during anaphase 1 of meiosis or the failure of sister chromosomes to separate during anaphase 2 of meiosis
CDKAL1 deficiency most likely caused what to increase in mouse B cells
misfolding of proinsulin. when you mistranslate codons issues like this will happen
high affinity transport (Kt)
under low-food conditions, capacity of transport is irrelevant bc nothing will be saturated. so need high affinity. Kt value is not dependent on the concentration of the amino acid transport protein
the substrate concentration at 1/2 of maximal transport capacity
D-isomer amino acids
will be inhibited in the body. we can only recognize L isomers to make proteins
starfish long term nutrient deprivation
average metabolic rate will tell you how long energy reserves will last. organism with SLOWER metabolism will last longer
yeast grows better aerobic or anaerobic
aerobic- makes more ATP (38 per glucose) anaerobic fermentation only makes 2 ATP
expressed in euchromatin. always turned on and must be accessible always to transcription factors.. EUCHROMATIN is the one in loose conformation unlike tightly bound heterochromatin
microfilaments that make up cytoskeleton
if cerebral malaria-causing infected erythrocyte lost adhesion to endothelium where does it flow
VEINS. veins are the first vessel type downstream of venues.
fewer visual pigment molecules available to observe light what happens to nervous system?
fewer signals of the weakly perceived color are sent to the brain.
red-green color blindness affects protein production in which type of cell
visual receptor cells in the retina. photoreceptors in the retina absorb light
BAT (brown adipose tissue)
has higher levels of mitochondria to keep the body warm
when striated muscle cell metabolizes glucose without O2 it does NOT produce significant amounts of
ACETYL-COA. it DOES produce a lot of pyretic acid, G6P, and lactic acid. w/o oxygen pyruvate is converted to lactate in the cytoplasm and is not transported to the mitochondria to be converted to acetyl-CoA.
A=T and G=C
equal amounts A and T. Equal amounts G and C.
long hydrocarbon tail and a head consisting of a carboxyl group.
cl- concentration of RBCs higher in systemic veins or systemic arteries?
higher in VEINS. bc HCO3- concentration is higher in veins than arteries because it is the oxygen poor blood coming BACK to the heart.
result of various alanine to proline mutations in subunit A is
loss of secondary structure. Proline makes kinks!!! it disrupts alpha helixes
antibiotics not recommended to lyse e.coli because
the bacterial lysate will disrupt host translation. more STx will cause increased cleavage of ribosomal proteins and subsequent disruption of translation. cell lysis won't stop STx from being released.
what Kd of drug is most effective?
LOWEST kd is most effective. it will interact more readily
breaks down proteins aka breaks down polypeptide chains.
LAC vs CAP
CAP is a transcription activator and LacI is a transcription repressor. when lactose is absent, LacI binds the lacZ promoter and represses transcription. When glucose is absent, CAP binds the lacZ promoter and activates transcription when LAC1 is not bound. CAP is necessary for optimal transcription when LacI is not bound.
derived from ECTODERM not endoderm like bronchi bladder and stomach are
false memories of words that are related to studied words
what you were exposed to most recently crowds memory. opposite of primacy effect. interference effect is irrelevant information interfering with recall
short term memory vs long term memory
SEPARATE memory systems
confirmation bias in child abuse diagnosis
parent concealment of child abuse from doctors least likely to effect anything. CONFIRMATION BIAS is the tendency to favor information that confirms existing beliefs. stronger for emotionally charged subjects
group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted action to achieve a common purpose. Child abuse pediatrics subspecialty.
when people in agreement discuss an issue their views get more extreme
social relations of capital, power, and status as the driving forces in society.
an individual feels disconnected from the larger community. it is a lack of social norms, which leads to a breakdown in the connection between an individual and his community
Gardner's idea of 8 intelligences
the suggestion that people have different types of intelligences. Spearman's idea of general intelligent thought of it as a black and white scale. Galton's idea of hereditary genius relies on family. Binet's idea of mental age is that if chronological age = mental age then IQ = 100.
causal relationship AS
need to test different environments in order to tell if it is genetic cause or not
Kohlberg's theory pre conventional stage of moral development
morality determined by what is punished and rewarded
James lange theory
physiological arousal and IMMEDIATELY emotion. Canon-Bard is simultaneous physiological feelings and emotion. two-factor theory is physiological, then cognitive interpretation, and then emotion
social process that influences human behavior. tv an agent of socialization for norms and values
pre-operational vs concrete operational
pre operational is 5-6 and kids don't understand conservation, but 8-9 yr olds in the concrete operational stage get that
world systems theory
core, semi-periphery, periphery
Mead theory of identity
"I" is the spontaneous and autonomous parts of the self. "me" is the part of the self formed in interaction with others and with the general social environment.
general fear of a broad stimulus after a select experience. higher levels of cortisol
depends on how often you do something, but you are rewarded sporadically. if a positive reinforcement this is the best way to increase behavior that you want.
repeating a sentence with target words will engage the phonological loop of working memory
discrimination and us health care
systems of stratification and social institutions. more integration means more hopeless about identity.
cones vs rods
cones are for color and rods are for depth and shape. cones in center of fovea. rods are out to the sides (help with clarity)
times embedded with the values of groups who create it i.e. social creations
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