AP Psychology Chapter 10 Review
Terms in this set (25)
Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. (creating concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgments).
Mental grouping of similar objects, people, events, ideas, or people.
We organize concepts into category hierarchies. (Cab drivers organize their cities into geographical sectors, which subdivide into neighborhoods and again into blocks.
Mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin). Used to enhance memory and recall, since you can keep a prototype of something and then match new, similar things to the prototype in order to identify, categorize, or store this new thing. For example, if I ask you to imagine a dog, what do you imagine? You may consider a German Shepard your prototype for a dog by which you compare all other dogs. So if you see another dog, you could say that other dog is small (compared to your prototype), heavy, ugly, beautiful, etc.
Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone-use of heuristics. E:
1) Have you been hit on the head? If yes, seek medical attention; if no, go to next step.
2) Have you taken a pain reliever? If no, take one now; if yes go to next step.
3) Have you eaten today? ... and so on until it would end with wither a solution or advice to seek medical attention.
Simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier buy also more error-prone than algorithms. Ex:
you may be an experienced driver. Over time you have learned that when you come to a stop sign, you need to come to a complete stop or you will get a ticket. Now, whenever you come to a stop sign, you have to give very little thought at all to what behavior is required; you see the stop sign, you stop. You have a heuristic for stop signs. simpler thinking strategy.
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. Ex: There's a video of a monkey trying to reach a banana on a rope. She tried a bunch of things until, out of nowhere, the monkey just took a big stick and knocked it down. She had not used the big stick before so it could not have been trial or error learning or anything else, so it is credited to insight. Aha! moment.
Tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions. Ex: I know someone who says that all Republicans are only concerned with healing the upper class at the expense of those who are not wealthy. He likes to identify Republican politicians who try to pass, for example, tax laws that help the upper class, which confirms his position. However, when some Republican politician proposes a law that favors those in the lower socioeconomic class, he says that it is just a smoke screen -- that they know it will never pass and only do it to make themselves look like they care when they actually don't.
Inability to see a problem from a new perspective from an impediment to problem solving. Ex: if a person does not get through the oral stage of development properly, then Freud would say that the person is fixated in the oral stage and will continue to seek oral pleasures, and will not be able to progress to the next stage of development until the oral issues are resolved. Fixation also refers to an inability to adopt any different or new perspective on a problem.
Tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. Ex: a child may enter a store by pushing a door open. Every time they come to a door after that, the child pushes the door expecting it to open even though many doors only open by pulling. This child has a mental set for opening doors.
Tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular protoypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of vividness) we presume such events are common. A romantic relationship may grow because a person you've seen comes to mind after you've left them, leading you to assume this person must be important. In the same way, new friendship possibilities might have been overlooked because a person you've met several times has never seemed familiar, or they didn't make an impression on you.
tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can affect decisions and judgments. Read these two questions and consider how you would respond if a person you liked called you and presented them to you: 1) "Would you like to go out tonight?"; and 2) "What time do you want to go out tonight?" These two questions are addressing the same basic issue, but they are framed differently -- they are presented in different ways and under different pretenses. The first, is framed in a more passive, open manner, while the second implies that you and this person ARE going out and the only issue is what time you will be going. It is all in how you ask!
tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid. Ex: I will accept that some good ice skaters are not professional hockey players, but will reject an assertion that some professional hockey players are not good ice skaters (which, although it seems unlikely, is possible).
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. Ex: For example, members of the Jonestown cult made a public admission of their loyalty to Jim Jones by selling all their possessions and following him to Guyana. Even though they later experienced irrational manipulation and abuse, they stayed to the point of committing mass suicide when he told them to do so.
spoken, written, of signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (prefix). ex: pre- in preview or the -ed that shows past tense.
set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning. To communicate and understand others.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning. Study of meanings through the relationships of words, how they are used, and how they are said. If I tell you I'm going to eat a piece of cake, you would interpret it literally. Maybe you would even ask for a piece. If instead, I told you my homework was a piece of cake, you would interpret that I meant it was easy, unless of course, I'm taking cooking classes. adding -ed to laugh means it happened in the past.
the rules for combining words into gramatically sensible sentences in a given language. Example, if you want to tell someone that you ran to the store, you know to put the verb "ran" before the noun "store" to form the sentence "I ran to the store" as opposed to saying "I store ran".
beginning at about 4 months, stage of speech development in which infant utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.