CS Ch 4 - 5

System Software, Application Software: tools for productivity
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

system software
consists of all the programs that enable the computer and its peripheral devices to function smoothly. divided into OS and system utilities.
operating system (OS)
traffic cop, set of programs that coordinates interaction of hardware components to each other. starting comp, transferring files from storage to RAM, managing memory (RAM) to optimize use
booting
process of loading the OS to memory RAM
6 steps of booting
BIOS is loaded, POST is completed, OS is loaded, System configuration is accomplished, system utilities are loaded. user is authenticated.
cold boot
start a computer that has not yet turned on
warm boot
restart a computer that is already on, restart
BIOS (basic input/output system)
encoded on ROM. part of the system software that provides the computer with the descriptions of the equipment that system contains (CPU, hard disk, RAM, video component)
setup program
settings that control the computer's hardware
single-tasking operating systems
run only one application at a time. to switch between applications, you had to quit one app before starting another
multitasking operating systems
enables more than one application to run at the same time
preemptive multitasking
ensures all applications have fair access to CPU. programs do not run from start to finish, but interrupted or suspended in order to start or continue to run another task
buffer
an area that temporarily holds data and instruction, needed to make processing of info more fluid
virtual memory
method of using a portion of computer's hard disk as an extension of RAM, make RAM seem larger
swap file
if memory is full, OS starts storing copies of pages in a hard disk file called.... (on usb instead of hard drive?)
paging
transferring of files from hard disk to RAM and back
thrashing
excessive paging, slows down system
interrupts
signal that informs OS that an event has occurred and is in need of immediate attention
readyboot
performance is better than hard disk virtual memory because accessing files on flash memory is quicker than accessing info on a hard disk
interrupt handlers/ interrupt service routines
miniprograms that immediately respond when an interrupt occurs
user interface
part of the OS that facilitates your interaction with the computer and the program you use.
graphical user interface (GUI)
uses graphics and the point-and-click technology of a mouse to make the operating system and program easier to use
menu-driven user interfaces
enables you to avoid memorizing key words and syntax
command-lin user interfaces
require you to type commands using keywords that tell the OS what to do one line at a time
server operating systems
used in client.server network enviornments
embedded operating systems
found on ROM chips in the portable or dedicated devices we use today
Microsoft Windows
most popular group of OS
Mac OS
1984. first to use GUI. more expensive
UNIX
1969. oldest and most powerful OS. mainly used for internet servers and larger mainframes
Linux
open source, runs on same hardware as windows/mac os. powerful and free
embedded OS
specialized operating systems designed for specific applications. very compact and efficient
android
released by google, open source
iOS
by apple, not free, more expensive. lots of apps
open source software
free, just get the source code
system utilities/ utility prgram
programs that work in tandem with the operating system and perform services that keep the computer system running smoothly
backup software
copies data from the computer's hard disk to backup devices, such as flash drives, CDs, DVDs, and external hard drive
full backup
include all files and data
incremental backup
backup software copies only those files that have been created or changed since the last backup occured
drive imaging software
creates a mirror image of the entire hard disk, including OS and applications
antivirus software
protects a computer from computer viruses
file manager
program that helps you organize and manage the data stored on your disk
search utility
enables you to search an entire hard disk or any indexed network storage device for a file
bad sector
portion of disk that is unable to store data reliably
disk scanning program
error checking program, can detect and resolve a number of physical and logical problems that may occur when you computer stores files on a disk
disk cleanup utility
differs from a disk scanning program in that it doesn't rectify any problems
disk degragmentation programs
reorganized stored data in a more efficient manner
file compression utility
exchanges programs and data efficiently by reducing the size of a file by as much as 80% without harming the data
archive
single file that contains two or moe files stored in a compressed format
system update
Windows Update that is meant to keep your operating system up to date with fixes or protections against external environment changes
emergency boot disk
storage device, like a USB drive, CD, DVD, or network device, that in case of an emergency or boot failure can load a reduced version of the OS that can be used for troubleshooting purposes
Safe Mode
an operating mode in which Windows loads a minimal set of drivers that are known to function correctly
application software
all of the programs that enable you to use your desktop computer, notebook, smartphone to perform tasks that assist in accomplishing work, or facilitating pay
general-purpose applications
programs used by many people to accomplish frequently performed tasks
productivity programs
help individuals work more efficiently and effectively on both personal and business-related documents
project management software
ex. microsoft project 2010. more for business users than home users
integrated program
single program that manages an entire business or set of related tasks
PIN manager software
personal information manager
multimedia
enable user to incoporate more than one of pictures, sound, and vido
lossless compression
original file is compressed so that it can be completely restored, without flaw, when it is decompressed
lossy compression
original file is processed so that some info is permanently removed from file, eliminates info that isn't perceived when people see picture or hear sound
bitmapped graphics/ raster graphics
composed of tiny dots, each corresponding to one pixel on the computer's display
GIF
265 color file format that uses lossless compression to reduce file size
JPEG
can store up to 16.7 million colors, best for complex images such as photographs, uses lossy compression to reduce file size
PNG
patent-free alternative to GIF. produces image that use lossless compression and best suited for Web use only
vector graphics
generated by use of points, lines, curves,polygons, shapes.
sound files
contain digitied data in the form of digital audio waveforms, saved in one of several standardized sound format
MP3
patented audio sound file format that enables you to compress CD-quality digital audio by ratio of 12:1 using lossy compression format
Ogg Vorbis
open source alternative to MP3
Web page authoring programs
powerful combination of programs used to develop multimedia internet applications
MPEG
family of standards for video compression
web-hosted technology
capability to upload files to an online site so they can be viewed and edited from another location, google docs
MUDs (multiuser dungeons/dimensions
originally known for online role-playing games. based on noncomputerized Dungeons and Dragons role-playing games
Massively multiplayer online roleplaying games
permit increasingly large numbers of players to interact with one another in virtual worlds
tailor-made application
designed for specialized fields or the business market. ex. medical
custom software
developed by programmers and software engineers to meet the specific needs of an organization. most expensive
packaged software
aimed at a mass market that includes both home and business users
stand-alone operating
used by single users
software suite
collection of individual, full-featured, stand-alone programs, usually possessing a similar interface and a common command structure
maintenance release
6.0 to 6.3
software upgrading
process of keeping your version of an application current with the marketplace
software license
contract distributed with a program that gives you the right to install and use the program on one computer
site license
contracts with a software publisher that enables an organization to install copies of a program on a specified number of computers
commercial software
software that must be purchased
shareware
permits a user to have a set period of time to "try before buying"
freeware
software given away for free
public domain software/ open domain
expressly free from copyright, can do anything you want with it
uninstalling
removes application's files from your hard disk
lossy
with ____ compression, some data is lost
GIF
which image type uses lossless compression and is limited to 256 colors?
MP3
the de-facto standard for audio compression, which can achieve a 12:1 compression ratio, is?
tailor-made
what category of software is made for a particular industry
shareware
what type of software was first to popularize the "try before you buy" concept?
preemptive
with ___ multitasking, the CPI is switched from application to application so that all get fair access
driver
a(n) ____ is a small utility program that allows the operating system to communicate with peripheral devices such as a printer
butter
a(n) ____ is an area in RAM that temporarily holds data instructions when in use
swap file
with virtual memory, data from RAM can be copied to a special file on the hard disk called a(n)___
Mac OS
___ was first operating system to use GUI