"Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There [is] no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as [the goods] which the Celestial Empire produces are absolute necessities to European nations and yourselves, we have permitted . . . that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence."
Letter to King George III of England, 1793
The tone of this letter is one of