20.1-20.3 Biotechnology and genetic engineering (IGCSE Biology 0610)
Moving genes from one species to another.
Terms in this set (47)
Bacterium that is used by genetic engineers to introduce DNA into plant cells.
A chemical drug that can kill bacteria or stop them from growing but that is safe to use in people or animals.
Genetic changes caused by rare mutation, that cause some bacteria to become unaffected by specific antibiotics.
Type of microorganism without a nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles. Many types can cause disease.
The use of microorganisms to produce useful products or carry out useful processes.
Cattle growth hormone. Produced by genetically engineered bacteria, this hormone can be used to boost milk production in cows and improve meat yields from bulls by boosting muscle development.
An enzyme used in genetic engineering to rejoin two DNA molecules. For example, when cloning a gene into a bacterial plasmid.
A protein molecule that can catalyse a chemical reaction due to the precise shape on its surface known as the active site.
Growth of microorganisms in a large fermenter vessel. Also refers to the production of ethanol by anaerobic respiration using yeast or bacteria.
A stretch of DNA that carries a specific instruction within the cell. Usually carries information on the sequence of amino acids within a specific protein. Conrols the characteristics of an organism.
Device used to introduce DNA into cells by firing microscopic gold particles coated with DNA at high speed into the tissue.
The deliberate introduction of a modified gene or a gene from a different species into an organism to achieve a useful characteristic.
The targeted introduction of a DNA change into an organism to achieve a useful result.
Genetically modified organism (GMO)
Organism produced using genetic engineering.
All the genetic material in an organism's cells.
Strain of rice that has been genetically engineered to produce vitamin A to help prevent night blindness.
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that regulates growth. A lack of this hormone causes hereditary dwarfism.
A chemical used to control weeds - can be selective or non-selective
The important hormone produced by the pancreas that lowers blood glucose levels.
Problem with vision in dim light caused by a lack of vitamin A in the diet. Can evenually lead to blindness.
A general term used to describe a chemical used to control animal pests
A small circular DNA molecule that exists as a small chromosome in bacteria, often carrying genes for antibiotic resistance.
An important type of biological molecule used for building bodies. Polymer made of amino acids. In dietary terms it is an essential nutrient for growth and repair.
Two pieces of DNA that have been joined together artifically - usually in a test tube.
A type of enzyme used in genetic engineering for cutting DNA into defined pieces based on the sequence of bases in the DNA.
Where the cut ends of a DNA molecule have a short region of exposed bases (overhangs) that makes forming recombinant DNA using ligase more efficient.
An organism that has been genetically engineered to carry a gene from a different species. Applies to animals and plants.
Describes the fact that the code used to convert DNA sequences into protein sequences is the same in all organisms on Earth.
Modified plasmid or virus that can be used to introduce new genes into an organism for genetic engineering.
Not truly living as they need to infect a living cell in order to reproduce. Can only be seen using an electron microscope.
Vitamin A (retinol)
Vitamin needed for vision. Deficiency causes night blindness.
A simple single-celled fungus that is used in brewing and bread making.
The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries.
-Changing the genetic material of an organism by removing, changing or inserting individual genes.
-Involves the transfer of genes from one organism to (usually) an unrelated species.
Why are bacteria useful in biotechnology and genetic engineering?
-They reproduce at a rapid rate
-Are able to make complex molecules
Explain why they are useful. (4)
-Lack of ethical concerns over they manipulation and growth
-They have a genetic code that is the same as all other organisms, so genes from other animals or plants can be successfully transferred into bacterial DNA.
-Bacterial DNA is in the form of a circular strand and also small circular pieces called plasmids. -Scientists have developed techniques to cut open these plasmids and insert sections of DNA from other organisms. When the bacterium divides, the DNA in the modified plasmid is copied, including the 'foreign' DNA.
-This may contain a gene to make a particular protein such as insulin, which can be extracted and used as a medicine to treat diabetes.
Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during production of ethanol for biofuels and during bread making
-Biofuels: Microorganisms encouraged to grow and multiply by providing nutrients such as glucose, with added salts and possibly vitamins. Oxygen or air is excluded from culture when anaerobic. Glucose -->alcohol =fermentation. Microorganisms that bring about fermentation are using the chemical reaction to produce energy, which they need for their living processes.
-Breadmaking: Yeast mixed with water and sugar to activate it, mixture added to flour to make dough. Dough rises as the yeast expires and releases carbon dioxide which gets trapped in the dough. When the dough is cooked at 200 degrees, it kills the yeast and evaporates any alcohol formed whilst making the bubbles expand more.
Investigate and describe the use of pectinase in fruit juice production
-Add powdered pectinase enzyme to apple purée, sir and leave for 5 mins.
-Transfer puree into filter and leave in warm place for 24 hours.
-Result: juice extracted from the puree. It collects in the measuring cylinder and is transparent -been clarified.
-Pectinase breaks down the apple tissue, releasing sugars in solution. More juice collects in measuring cylinder when warm conditions.
Biological washing powders
-When combined in washing powders, proteases and lipase are effective in removing stains in clothes caused by proteins e.g. blood, egg and gravy, and fats e.g. grease.
-Protein and fat molecules tend to be large and insoluble, when they have ben digested the products are small and soluble molecules which can pass out of the cloth.
-Save energy as they can be used to wash clothes at lower temperatures, so no need to boil water. However, if they are put in water at higher temperatures, the enzymes become denatured and lose effectiveness.
Lactose free milk
-Lactose = disaccharide sugar.
-Lactose intolerance = digestive problem where the body does not produce enough of the enzyme lactase. As a result, the lactose remains the gut, where it is fermented by bacteria, causing symptoms such as flatulence, diarrhoea and stomach pains.
-Lactase can be produced by fermenting yeasts or fungi.
-Simple way to make lactose free milk is to add lactase to milk. The enzyme breaks down lactose sugar into two monosaccharide sugars; glucose and galactose. Both can be absorbed by the intestine.
-Alternative: immobilise lactase on the surface of beads. Milk is then passed over the beads and lactose sugar is effectively removed. -avoids enzyme in milk as they remain on the beads.
Explain how fermenters are used in the production of penicillin
-Antibiotics produced in giant fermenting tanks, up to 100,000 litres in capacity.
-Filled with a nutrient solution
-For penicillin, the carbohydrate source is sugar
-Mineral salts added, pH between 5-6, temperature 26 degrees c. Air blown through liquid and stirred.
-Sterile conditions essential
-Nutrient fluid containing the antibiotic is filtered off and the antibiotics extracted by crystallisation or other methods.
Outline genetic engineering using bacterial production of a human protein as an example
-Isolation of the DNA making up a human gene using restriction enzymes
-Forming sticky ends
-Cutting of bacterial plasmid DNA with the same restriction enzymes
-Forming complementary sticky ends
-Insertion of human DNA into bacterial plasmid DNA using DNA ligase to form a recombinant plasmid
-Insertion of plasmid into bacteria (specific detail is not required)
-Replication of bacteria containing recombinant plasmids which make humanprotein as they express the gene
Genetic engineering is used in the production of...
Crop plants can be genetically modified to resist...
-insect pests and herbicides
State examples of genetic engineering:
-The insertion of human genes into bacteria to produce human insulin
-The insertion of genes into crop plants to confer resistance to herbicides
-The insertion of genes into crop plants to confer resistance to insect pests
-The insertion of genes into crop plants to provide additional vitamins
Advantages of genetically modifying crops (incl soya, maize and rice)
-Beneficial to humans
-The advantage of golden rice is that it can be used in areas where Vitamin A deficiency is common and so can help prevent blindness -it has beta carotene in it
Disadvantages of genetically modifying crops (incl soya, maize and rice)
Fears that it will crossbreed with and contaminate wild rice
Worries that GM organisms might harm people
Beta carotene levels aren't high enough to make a difference
GM organisms can be expensive
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