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Samuel Johnson

the greatest writer of the 18th century

Samuel Johnson

A dictionary writer, literary critic, conversationalist, and moralist who started an education at Oxford University (but never finished due to financial matters) and who was deeply impressed by Law's Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life

Samuel Johnson

Unsuccessfully started a private school, unsuccessfully tried to sell a play with David Garrick, wrote for the Gentleman's Magazine, started The Rambler and The Idler, founded and dominated the Literary Club, wrote The Lives of the Poets, edited Shakespeare

Samuel Johnson

Received an honorary master's and doctor's degree from Oxford for A Dictionary of the English Language


Year that A Dictionary of the English Language was published

James Boswell

Author of The Life of Samuel Johnson

Life of Samuel Johnson

the greatest biography in English literature


introduces the facts of another person's life and orders them in such a way that the reader can develop real insight into the person's character

James Boswell

Practiced law and spent years tailing Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson

Wrote One-and-Twenty


Author of The Confessions

Thomas a Kempis

Author of The Imitation of Christ

John Donne

Wrote many devotional poems and sermons

Brother Lawrence

Author of The Practice of the Presence of God

Jeremy Taylor

Author of The Rule and Exercise of Holy Living and Holy Dying

Blaise Pascal

Author of Pensees

Matthew Henry

Wrote several devotional books, including Directions for Daily Communion with God and Commentary on the Bible

William Law

Author of A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life and Christian Perfection

John Wesley

Authored many works of theology and Christian living

Matthew Henry

A dissenter, Presbyterian pastor, and writer who studied law of Gray's Inn

Josiah Wedgwood

England's most famous pottery maker whose chinaware is recognized today by its white cameo design on a blue or green backround

William Law

An Anglican educated at Cambridge University whose books affected people such as the Wesley brothers, George Whitefield, and Samuel Johnson

Blue Boy

Painted by Thomas Gainsborough; was unusual because of its brilliant blue color


Painted by Thomas Lawrence; depicted Sarah Goodin Barrett Moulton, who died of tuberculosis

George Whitefield

Son of tavern keepers who was Oxford educated, who was part of the "Holy Club", and who preached over 18000 sermons for 34 years to over 10 million people

John Wesley

the great revival leader in England and America and the founder of Methodism; the son of an Anglican minister and Susanna Wesley; saved from death in a burning house; kept a famous Journal; wrote grammars of classical languages and English, handbooks on logic, medicine, and physics, Bible commentaries, works on Church history, theological works, hymns, and editions of early religious classics such as the writings of Bunyan

Isaac Watts

a nonconformist pastor who became the Father of English Hymnody and the author of Hymns and Spiritual Songs (published in 1707)

Philip Doddridge

a nonconformist pastor who became a hymn writer

Charles Wesley

the Poet of Methodism

John Rippon

Published the first Baptist hymnal

Olney Hymns

Expressed man's sinful nature and need of salvation


Number of hymns written by John Newton in the Olney Hymns


Number of hymns written by William Cowper in the Olney Hymns

John Newton

Wrote Amazing Grace

William Cowper

Wrote There is a Fountain Filled with Blood

Joseph Addison

Wrote The Spacious Firmament on High

Joseph Addison

Wrote How Are Thy Servants Blest, O Lord

Joseph Addison

Wrote When All Thy Mercies, O My God

The Spacious Firmament on High

Based on Psalm 19 and published in The Spectator in 1712

How Are Thy Servants Blest, O Lord

Found at the end of "Greatness"; talks about being in a storm at sea

When All Thy Mercies, O My God

Followed an essay called "Gratitude"

Isaac Watts

Deliberately determined to change the entire system of hymn singing

Isaac Watts

Wrote From All That Dwell below the Skies

Isaac Watts

Wrote Come, Holy Spirit, Heavenly Dove

Isaac Watts

Wrote Jesus Shall Reign

Isaac Watts

Wrote The Heavens Declare Thy Glory, Lord

long meter

made up of a four-line stanza with each line containing eight syllables

short meter

in which the first, second, and fourth lines have six syllables and the third has eight

common meter

in which the first and third contain eight syllables and the second and fourth contain six

From All That Dwell below the Skies

Watt's version of Psalm 117

Jesus Shall Reign

Based on Psalm 72

The Heavens Declare Thy Glory, Lord

Watt's version of Psalm 19

Philip Doddridge

friend of Isaac Watts, composed about 370 hymns which were published after his death, and established an academy and seminary

Philip Doddridge

Wrote O Happy Day

Philip Doddridge

Wrote How Gentle God's Commands

Awake, My Soul, Stretch Every Nerve

Expresses desire to actively serve God

Philip Doddridge

Wrote Awake, My Soul, Stretch Every Nerve

O Happy Day

Originally titled "Rejoicing in Our Covenant Engagement with God"; a favorite of Queen Victoria

Charles Wesley

the "sweet singer" of Methodism; produced over 6500 hymns in fifty-six collections

Charles Wesley

wrote "soldiers of Christ, arise"

Charles Wesley

wrote "I want a principle within"

Charles Wesley

wrote "come, thou long-expected Jesus"

Charles Wesley

wrote "Jesus, lover of my soul"

Charles Wesley

wrote "arise, my soul, arise!"

Augustus Toplady

in Anglican minister who compiled a collection of 418 hymns and wrote "rock of ages"

Augustus Toplady

wrote "if, on a quiet sea"

John Newton

wrote "amazing Grace" and it worked with William Cowper to write the Olney Hymns; was a rough and crude captain of a slave trading ship who was eventually taught by God's grace to fear death, he repented of his stands and fled to God for relief.

John Newton

wrote "fellowship with Christ"

John Newton

wrote "glorious things of thee are spoken"

John Newton

wrote "how sweet the name of Jesus sounds"

pre-romanctic poets

turned away from the formality of Pope and began raiding poetry that was characterized by warmth of expression, a sense of mystery, a delight and wonder, a love for nature, and dress in the past, and a concern for simple country folk. Used verb forms other than the public, such as blank verse, the ballad stanza, and the sonnet. Included William Cowper, Thomas Gray, Oliver Goldsmith, William Blake, and Robert Burns.

poetic diction

language that is reserved for poetry only

William Cowper

remembered as both a hymn writer and a pre-romance poet; suffered periods of mental depression his entire life

William Cowper

wrote "walking with God"

William Cowper

wrote "sometimes a light surprises"

William Cowper

wrote "the castaway"

William Cowper

wrote "the task"

William Cowper

wrote "light shining out of darkness"

Thomas Gray

led the way from classicism romanticism and is remembered for one of the best known poems in the English language -- "elegy written in a country churchyard"

Oliver Goldsmith

an Irish man who was one of the most versatile writers of his age; wrote the poem "the deserted Village", a novel called the Vicar of Wakefield, and wrote a comedy called She Stoops to Conquer. Johnson said that, "he touched nothing that he did not adorn."

William Blake

a mystical poets and artists whose poetry and art are eccentric, mystical, and often rebellious; his poems stress the evils of the city; the restrictions of society; the necessary of individualism, imagination, and emotion; and the love of nature. Wrote songs of innocence and songs of experience

William Blake

wrote "the Lamb", "the Tiger", "applaud in the pebble", "London", and "to see a world in a grain of sand"

Robert Burns

Scotland's greatest poet; his songs in Poland, which are about Scottish life and use the narrative dialect, are now world famous. They often deal with the humble peasants and presented satirical portraits. Many of them reflect the high standards of the Bible loving Scott.

Robert Burns

wrote "Sweet Afton", sometimes called it the greatest songwriter of the world for this piece

Robert Burns

wrote "John Anderson in my Joe"

Robert Burns

wrote "a red, red rose"

Robert Burns

wrote "a man's a man for that"

Robert Burns

wrote "Bannockburn"

Battle of Bannockburn

one of the greatest moments in Scottish history; in this battle the Scots were led by Robert Bruce

Robert Burns

Wrote "Auld Lang Syne"

Robert Burns

wrote "to a mouse" and "to a louse"

Robert Burns

wrote "The Cotter's Saturday Night"

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