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Christopher Columbus
He mistakenly discovered the Americas in 1492 while searching for a faster route to India.
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Revolutionary war
1775-1783 American War of Independence. Began as 13 colonies versus Great Britain but soon turned into G.B versus colonies, France, Netherlands, and Spain = American Victory
Articles of confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Father of the constution
Madison
Bill of rights
First 10 amendments
Great compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
3 Branches of govt
Judical- Supreme Court, interpret the laws, Legislatm- congress, make laws, Executive- president, enforce the laws
Legislative
Makes laws
Executive
Carries out the laws
Judicial
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
George Washington
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Secretary of state
Advises the president on foreign policy affairs. Is the chief representative of the US to other countries.
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States , He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Lousiana purchase
The purchase of French land between the Missippi river and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the US
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier.
Trail of tears
(1838-39) an 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people
Abolitionist movement
Movement to end slavery
Temperance movement
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
Tariff
Tax on imported goods
Missouri compromise
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Compromise of 1850
CA admitted as a free state, increased fugitive slave laws, slave trade banned in Washington DC; popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Kanas-nebraksa act
popular sovereignty for slaves
Uncle toms cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Dred scott
He was a slave who was taken to free territory. Scott sued for his freedom and the Supreme Court declared that slaves are property, not people.
Civil war
1861-1865
Secession
Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
Emancipation proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Gettysburg address
A 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Appomattox courthouse
April 1865., the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
John wilks booth
who killed lincoln
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
13th amendment
Abolished Slavery
14th amendment
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Jim crow laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Sharecropping
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Spanish American war
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Manifest destiny
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
Social darwinism
"Survival of the fittest"
Robber barons
Negative term used to describe large businessmen of the late 1800's because of the fact that they used ruthless practices to destroy competition and took advantage of workers.
New inventions
stoves, fridges, vacuums, radios, Model T, the commercial advertisement
Industrialization
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
Urbanization
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
Big business
Term used to describe the corporations and monopolies since the industrial revolution of the late 1800s.
Laissez-faire
Hands off. No government intervention in business.
Monopoly
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.
Sherman and clayton antitrust act
empowers govt to break up monopolies
Populist party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Anarchy
Absence of law or government; chaos, disorder
Unions
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
Eugene debs
Leading socialist
Materialism
preoccupation with physical comforts and things
Muckrakers
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
Ellis and angels island
Where immigrants were held
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.
Jane addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Progressives
City reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way government works
Progressive presidents
Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson
Policatal machines
a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.
Robert la follette
Progressive Wisconsin governor who attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary
John muir
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
Margaret sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Booker t Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
W.E.B duBois
Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration as well as higher education for 10% of African Americans-what he called a "Talented Tenth". Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
Plessy vs Ferguson
Separate but equal
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Immigrants from 1890-1920
northern and western europe
Nativism
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Monroe doctrine
An American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers.
Theodore roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
open door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Big stick policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policeme
panama canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States, it opened in 1915.
William H. taft
successor of theodore roosevelt; second progressive president; largest president; more cautious than roosevelt; work displeases roosevelt
Woodrow willson
US president who presented a plan called the the Fourteen Points that he hoped would bring peace to Europe
poncho villa
Mexican bandit, whose murderous schemes were meant to provoke a war between Wilson and the Mexican president
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.
WW1
1914-1918
new weapons in WW1
machine guns, poison gas, tanks (flimsy), airplanes
lusitana
British passenger ship that included a few Americans that was sunk by a German U-Boat and angered the Americans
Zimmerman telegraph
Sent by Germany to Mexico that encouraged Mexico to help Germany FIght against the US if they entered war and in return Germany would help Mexico get their land back from the US.
central and allied powers
Alliances in WWI
john j. pershing
supreme commander of the AEF
14 points for peace
Written by President Wilson; series of peace proposals that outlined a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace
league of nations
An international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; suggested in Wilson's Fourteen Points.
the big four
Italy, France, England, and the U.S. 4 powers who met at Versallies to discuss peace
Espionage and seditions acts
Two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US partcipation in WWI
treaty of versailles
1919
19th amendent
Gave women the right to vote