WOBC Phase II Written Exam

Terms in this set (30)

Tasks.
The commander will task his subordinate units in this subparagraph. Subordinate leaders use their task from higher as the primary piece of their mission analysis when they are conducting their Estimate of the
Situation. (METT-TC) Therefore, a tasking statement is required to include all the same criteria as for a
mission statement, including the answers to the "5
W's": Who, What, When, Where, and Why.
-"Who" refers to the subordinate unit designated to
accomplish the task assigned.
-For all offensive (and defensive) operations, the "what" refers to the assigned tactical task. The astute commander uses appropriate tactical tasks (listed in MCDP 1-0 and the Ops Terms and Graphics Student Handout) to ensure subordinate comprehension of what the commander wants to occur. Further, use of non-tactical tasks invites interpretation and ambiguity that increases internal friction. (Note: If the operation is not offensive or defensive in nature, the subordinate units are not required to receive tactical tasks. An example of this would be convoy operations.)
-"When" refers to the time the assigned task is required to occur.
-"Where" refers to the geographic location at which the effects of the tactical task are required.
-"Why" is identified as the most important because it informs subordinates of the reason the task must be accomplished. If the underlying premise for the task is understood, there is a greater chance that the mission will be successfully accomplished. The purpose should be related to the higher unit's endstate as briefed earlier. During communication of the order, the commander will again "walk the dog", but with graphics that accurately depict the designated subordinate units.
HF: 2 to 29.999 MHz
Pro/Cons:
- Lower HF frequencies can communicate over great distances.
- ALE 3G and ALE 3G Plus make HF more reliable than ever
- "From around the corner to around the world"
Uses:
- When long haul communications are necessary and no SATCOM is available.
Equipment:
- AN/PRC-150 man portable radio.
- AN/MRC-148 vehicle mounted radio.
- Toughbook connected to radio for tactical chat.


VHF: 30 to 89.999 MHz
Pros/Cons:
- Extends slightly beyond line of sight (LOS) due to diffraction or bending of the signal by the atmosphere.
- At frequencies in the 30 MHz range, acts like HF ground waves.
- Range of reliable communications generally no more than 50 km and often depends on the
--> Power output of the radio.
--> Terrain.
--> Atmospheric conditions.
Uses:
- Most widely used in infantry battalions.
- Ground-to-Ground communications
Equipment:
- AN/PRC-117: man-packed Multi-Band radio with frequency- hopping capability and internal cryptographic chip.
- AN/VRC-110: vehicular- mounted with power amplifier (two radios per vehicle)


UHF (LOS): 225 to 511.999 MHz
Pro/Cons:
Strictly line of sight (LOS).
Unable to bend around
obstacles because UHF
wavelengths are so small.
Range may extend for more
than 500 km as long as aircraft is high enough to be within LOS.
Uses:
Ground-to-air communications
Air-to-air communications
Equipment:
AN/PRC-117/152/, man- portable.
AN/VRC-103, vehicular- mounted.


UHF (SATCOM): 225 to 511.999 MHz
- Extends from the earth to Satellites and back down.
- Used for both high speed voice and data communications.
- Provides long range tactical communications
- Can access 5k or 25k channels DAMA or dedicated.
- AN/PRC-117/152/man-portable, AN/VRC-103/110: vehicular- mounted radio system with power amplifier
Hand-held Signals
Star clusters, star parachutes, and smoke parachutes are three hand-held signals used by the Marine Corps.

Star Clusters
Star clusters are used for signaling and illuminating. They are issued in an expendable launcher, which consists of a launching tube and firing cap. These signals produce a cluster of five free-falling pyrotechnics.
- Types. Three current types of star clusters include the M125 and M125A1, green star cluster; the M158 red star cluster; and the M159, white star cluster.
- As the signal is expelled, four flexible steel fins unfold to stabilize the signal during flight. After the signal rises approximately 6 meters, the rocket motor, which has ignited by the propelling gases, begins to burn fully, forcing the signal to a height of 200 to 215 meters (650 to 700 feet). At that point, a delay element ignites an ejecting charge, which in turn forces the five-star illuminant cluster out of the nose of the signal body.
- Firing data. Star clusters burn 6 to 10 seconds. Their rate of descent is 14 meters (45 feet) per second.

Star Parachutes
Star parachutes are also used for signaling and illuminating. They are issued in an expendable launcher that consists of a launching tube and a firing cap. These signals produce a single parachute-suspended illuminate star.
- Types. The current types of star parachutes include the M126A1, red star parachute; the M127A1, white star parachute; and the M195, green star parachute.
- Firing data. The M126 and M127 series of star parachutes rise to a height of 200 to 215 meters. The M126 buns for 50 seconds and the M127 burns for 25 seconds. Their average rate of descent is 2.1 one meters per second. The signal can be seen for 50 to 58 kilometers (30 to 35 miles) at night.

Smoke Parachutes
Smoke parachutes are used for signaling only. They are issued in an expendable launcher that consists of a launching tube and a firing cap. These signals produce a single, perforated colored smoke canister that is parachute-suspended.
- Types. The current types of smoke parachutes include M128A1, green smoke parachute; the M129A1, red smoke parachute; and M194, yellow smoke parachute.
- Firing data. Smoke parachutes rise to a height of 200 to 215 meters. The signals emit smoke for 6 to 18 seconds, forming a smoke cloud which persists for 60 seconds. Their rate of descent is 4 meters per second.


Surface Trip Flares
Surface trip flares outwardly resemble antipersonnel mines or hand grenades. Their primary use is to warn of infiltrating troops by illuminating the field. They may also be used as signals or as booby traps. When activated, the flare produces 50,000 candlepower of illumination.
Fire Support Coordination Measures (FSCMs) are designed to provide safeguards for friendly forces and at the same time facilitate rapid engagement of targets. FSCMs fall into two broad categories:
- Permissive. With the establishment of a permissive measure, no further coordination is required for the engagement of targets affected by the measure. The primary purpose of permissive measures is to facilitate the attack of targets.
- Restrictive. The establishment of a restrictive measure imposes certain requirements for specific coordination prior to the engagement of those targets affected by the measure. The primary purpose of restrictive measures is to provide safeguards for friendly forces.

The FSC is responsible for recommending the establishment of all FSCMs, with the exception of boundaries. Recommendations are based on the:
- Maneuver commander's guidance.
- Location of friendly forces.
- Scheme of maneuver.
- Anticipated enemy actions.

Once established, FSCMs are displayed on maps, firing charts, and overlays. Graphical portrayal will include at a minimum (all in black) the:
- Abbreviation of the FSCM.
- Establishing headquarters.
- Effective date-time-group (DTG).

The maneuver commander uses boundaries in both the offense and defense to designate the geographical area for which a particular unit is responsible.

Boundaries:
o Describe the zone of action or sector of a maneuver unit.
o Are usually assigned along terrain features easily recognizable on the ground.
o Are so situated that key terrain features and avenues of approach are
completely included in the area assigned to a unit.
o Also serve as the basic FSCM. As such, they are both permissive and restrictive in nature.

Boundaries are:
- Restrictive in that no fire support should be delivered across a boundary
unless the fires are coordinated with the force having responsibility within
the boundary. Fires delivered within close proximity to boundaries also
should be coordinated with the adjacent unit.
- Permissive in that within his own boundaries, the maneuver commander
enjoys complete freedom of fire and maneuver.

Permissive FSCMs.
- Free Fire Area (FFA). Specific designated area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters.
- Coordinated Firing Line (CFL). Expedites surface-to-surface attack beyond CFL without coordination with the ground commander in whose area the targets are located.
- Fire Support Coordination Line (FSCL). Expedite surface-to-surface AND air-to-surface attack beyond FSCL without coordination with the ground commander in whose area the targets are located.
- Battlefield Coordination Line (BCL). Expedite surface-to-surface AND air-to-surface attack beyond FSCL without coordination with the ground commander in whose area the targets are located EXCLUSIVELY BY MAGTF FIRE SUPPORT ASSETS.

Restrictive FSCMs.
- Restrictive Fire Line (RFL). An RFL is a line established between converging friendly forces (one or both may be moving) that prohibits fires, or effects of fires, across the line without coordination with the affected force. The purpose of the RFL is to regulate all fires occurring between converging forces. The common commander of the converging forces:
o Establishes the RFL.
o May delegate establishing authority to the senior commander of the two converging forces or to the commander of the maneuvering force in a linkup operation between a moving and stationary force.
o The RFL should be located on identifiable terrain. In linkup operations, the RFL is moved as close as possible to the stationary force to allow maximum freedom of action for the maneuver and fire support of the linkup force.
o Upon arrival, the FSCC disseminates the RFL to the subordinate, adjacent, and higher headquarters, as required. The RFL is further disseminated at each level of command, to include the establishing command, and to all concerned fire control agencies and other services as may be applied.
o The location of the RFL is graphically portrayed on maps, charts, and overlays by a solid black line with the letters "RFL" followed by the establishing headquarters in parentheses above the line and the effective DTG below the line (see diagram below).
- Restrictive Fire Area (RFA). An RFA is an area in which specific firing or coordination restrictions are imposed and into which fires in excess that exceeds those restrictions will not be delivered without coordination with the establishing headquarters. The purpose of the RFA is to regulate fires into an area according to the stated restrictions. This means that fires or certain types of ordnance (e.g., limitations on improved conventional munitions (ICM) or family of scatterable mines (FASCAM)) can be controlled in an area where friendly forces are or will be located.
o Any ground unit commander may establish an RFA within his zone; however, an RFA is not normally established below the battalion level. When RFAs are
used to protect a unit from friendly fires (e.g., light armored reconnaissance (LAR) unit), the size of the RFA should be sufficient to allow the maneuver of the unit but not so large as to needlessly restrict fire support in other areas.

To facilitate rapidly changing maneuver areas, on-call RFAs may be used. The dimensions, location, and restrictions of the on-call RFA are prearranged.
The RFA is activated and deactivated when requested by the maneuvering unit or scheduled by time or event.
o An RFA may be on recognizable terrain expressed either by:
-- Grid coordinates.
-- Radius from a point.
o The establishing commander disseminates an RFA to the FSCCs of subordinate, adjacent, and higher headquarters, as required. An RFA is further disseminated to each level of command, including the establishing command, and to all concerned fire support agencies.
o The RFA is graphically portrayed on a map, chart, or overlay by an area bounded by a black line with the letters "RFA", the designation of the unit establishing the area, and the effective DTGs inside the line (see diagram below).
- No Fire Area (NFA). An NFA is an area into which no fires or effects of fire are allowed. The two exceptions to an NFA are:
o The establishing headquarters may approve fires temporarily within the NFA on a mission-by-mission basis.
o If any enemy force within the NFA engages a friendly force and the engaged unit leader determines there is no time for coordination, he may "respond in kind" with fires into the NFA. The purpose of the NFA is to prohibit fires or their effects in the area, normally to protect civilians. Typically, the host nation establishes an NFA. On arrival of military forces, the force commander coordinates the location of an NFA with local authorities. Normally, an NFA is on recognizable terrain, but its location may also be expressed either by:
o Grid coordinates.
o Radius from a center point.
The force commander disseminates the NFA to all units of the force. An NFA is graphically portrayed (see diagram below) in black with diagonal lines drawn
through the enclosed area. The letters "NFA" are written inside the enclosed area, along with the effective DTG and the headquarters of the establishing unit.
Base Unit Concept. Unit leaders control the speed, direction, and orientation of their entire unit by locating themselves in close proximity with the base unit, a designated sub-unit that serves as a reference point for the other sub-unit's related movements. Unit leaders control their entire unit by driving the base unit through the objective area. Its foundation is effective lateral and implicit communication.

Reasons for Base Unit. The purpose of the base unit is to allow:
-The squad leader to control his unit when verbal commands cannot be heard.
-Ease of control when visibility restrictions do not allow team leaders to see the squad leader.
-Extend the flexibility of small unit direction changes down to the fire team leader, enabling him to maximize the use of micro-terrain allow the:
o Fire teams to maximize the use of movement and firepower within the team.
o Squad leader to quickly change the direction and speed of the attack using hand and arm signals to direct the base unit fire team and allowing the other two teams to follow the base unit.

Application of Base Unit Concept. The squad leader positions himself next to the team leader of the team designated as the base unit. The squad leader controls the squad by using the base unit fire team leader. If the base unit becomes pinned down or otherwise unable to continue movement forward as a result of an enemy surface, the squad leader can quickly reposition himself with another fire team and continue with the attack using a new base unit. The squad leader, using the fighter/leader concept, dictates speed and direction. The fighter/leader concept allows squad leaders to establish direction and speed of unit movement by their own individual movements and positioning near the base fire team.
The fire team leaders must be:
-Able to move short distances to the left, right, forward, and back during movement
-Careful to guide off the general direction and speed of the base unit so as not to fire into other teams

Considerations of the Base Unit Concept.
-Connecting Files. The flanking fire team members nearest the base unit must maintain visual or physical contact with the base unit so the squad leader can direct them.
-Buddy Team/Pair. One Marine is in the "fore" position while one Marine is in the "aft" position.
-Suppress, Assess, Move
-"The 300 Mil Rule":
-Individual Actions:
o Use high crawl to gain ground and to be able to access weapon if needed, especially when under sporadic fire or when negotiating low obstacles
o Use low craw when under intense fire or for negotiating low obstacles
o Execute rushes in short intervals to covered and concealed positions
M-ission Analysis
E-nemy Analysis
T-roops and Fire Support Available
T-errain and Weather Analysis
T-ime/Space/Logistics Analysis
C-ivilian Considerations

The key is for the leader to conduct a detailed analysis to mitigate risk, and drive decisions that allow him to develop the most tactically sound plan.
-First, the leader must understand the specified and implied tasks of the mission issued to him by higher (Mission Analysis). A specified task is a task explicitly given to the commander from higher. An implied task is a task not explicitly given, but is a task that must be done to complete the mission. (For example, your mission is: At 2100 brush your teeth in order to prevent cavities. The specified task is to "brush" your teeth at 2100. A related implied task would be put toothpaste on your toothbrush.)
-Second, he must look at the enemy's combat power and the conditions under which he can employ those assets to achieve a desired endstate (Enemy Analysis).
-Third, he looks at the effects of Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key terrain, Avenues of approach, and Weather (OCOKA-W) on possible friendly and enemy SOMs (Terrain and Weather Analysis).
-Fourth, he must understand the combat power he brings to the fight within his own unit, and how adjacent and supporting units will support or impede mission success (Troops and Fire Support Available).
-Fifth, the leader must identify the time available for each phase of the mission, time constraints and restraints from higher, time/space considerations for enemy and friendly movement, logistics required, as well as gaps (Time/Space/Logistics Analysis).
-"C" stands for Civil considerations. For simplicity at this time, we will skip or "grey out" this step until later in your officer development.
Immediately upon capture, the EPWs are disarmed, secured, and searched for concealed weapons, equipment and documents of particular intelligence value, using males to search males and females to search females, when possible. Until each EPW is searched, we must be particularly alert to prevent the use of concealed weapons or the destruction of documents and/or equipment. A complete and thorough search is required unless the number of EPWs captured, enemy action or other circumstances make such a search impractical.

EPW Search Team
An EPW Search team consists of a cover-man and a search-man. The cover-man is responsible for providing protection for the individual who is conducting the search of an EPW. The cover-man is armed and positions himself in such a manner that he never has the search-man between himself and the EPW (i.e. search-man and cover-man are at a 90 offset. This may require that the cover-man move around the EPW as the search is being conducted. The cover-man should remain alert; approximately 4-6 feet from the search man and never take his eyes off the EPW.

Types of Searches
There are three types of searches: hasty, detailed, and strip search.

1) Hasty Search When conducting a hasty search, the searcher quickly pats down the EPW looking for any obvious weapons and/or documents and equipment.

2) Detailed Search This is a more thorough search, made in a secure location or before transport of the EPW. Before conducting the search, determine if the searcher will have the EPWs lined up facing a wall, prone position or the push up position.

3) Strip Search A strip search is performed by removing all clothing and objects from the EPW. It is an in-depth search that only qualified personnel (i.e., a Medical Officer or Human Intelligence [HUMINT)/Counterintelligence [CI] personnel) can perform.

Procedure for Conducting a Search
Performing a thorough and safe search is crucial, especially when there may be multiple EPWs, a significant amount of time until the EPWs can be delivered to higher or they may be of significant intelligence value. Below are several considerations when performing a search of an EPW.

When conducting searches on female EPWs, the searcher should be a female, but if someone other than a woman is conducting the search, then the order of preference for the searcher is: a Medical Officer (doctor), officer, corpsman, or responsible enlisted Marine.

Search-man either gives his weapon to cover-man or secures it behind his back. Locate and remove weapons from the EPW to prevent resistance or attack. Before starting the search, determine if the EPW is dead or wounded. Enemy tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) may include feigning injury in order to lure US personnel within range of Improvised Explosive Devices. However, if wounded, remember that EPWs must be given first aid. The severity of the wound determines whether he is treated before or after the search.

Search from head to toe, one side of the body (left or right), then switch hands and search the other side. Ensure that the search is conducted in an organized and methodical manner. Search-man must also ensure that they search from head to toe, including all headgear, collar, sleeves, pockets, waist, legs, footgear, and all individual gear.

Frequently, EPWs may have documents or other items that will have intelligence value. Ensure that they are removed from the EPW, collected, tagged with all EPW information attached, and given to the unit S-2 in a timely manner. Appropriate intelligence sources will be notified when EPWs are found in possession of large sums of US or foreign currency. Proper receipts will be prepared to account for all property that is taken from the EPW.

When searching an EPW, you must decide what things an EPW should be allowed to keep in his possession. Examples of items that an EPW may retain:
- Items of identification such as military ID card, dog tags, or a letter of authorization, reflecting a civilian EPWs status as an individual permitted to accompany the armed forces in the field, should never be taken away from an EPW. In some instances this identification is necessary to convince a captor that his prisoner is not a spy.
- Religious items and badges of rank and personal decorations may be retained by an EPW. These items have no military intelligence value and will not help an EPW to escape. These items are the personal property of the EPW.
- EPWs are also allowed to keep personal protective equipment, such as field protective mask, flak jacket, and helmet after they have been thoroughly searched. These materials may be given back to the EPW immediately after the search or they may be given back upon arrival at a higher detention facility.

Prisoners from whom personal property is taken should be given a written receipt for their property.
Example of items that EPWs may not retain:
-Weapons.
-Any item (e.g., a compass or map) which may facilitate escape.

This rule should not be taken to an extreme level. While confiscating an EPW's boots would tend to decrease his ability to escape, you are not permitted to do this. In general, EPWs should remain in possession of all articles of personal use such as their clothing, food, and personal equipment.

If an EPW has high-value personal items (e.g., an expensive watch), it may not be confiscated (taken away without an obligation to return it) because it has no military value. However, if an EPW has such an item in his possession, it may subject the EPW to robbery, possibly accompanied by physical harm, by other EPWs. For his own safety, the watch should be impounded, taken away with an obligation to return it when the EPW is released from captivity. Another reason to keep items of value out of the possession of EPWs is that such items may be used as a means to bribe guards or to pay others to set up an escape. As a rule, money and articles of value may be impounded for reasons of security, but only by order of an officer. A receipt must be given to the EPW.

Confiscating items with no military value can be characterized as looting, which could be considered a violation of the Geneva Convention and the UCMJ.
You should not confiscate personal field rations, winter coats, shelter halves, and/or first aid kits even if you or your fellow Marines have an urgent need for these items. Confiscation is prohibited unless the EPWs have no need for the articles or satisfactory substitutes are given to the EPWs.
All prisoners of war and retained persons will, at the time of capture, be tagged using the appropriate forms. This accountability enables the Commander to properly account for the handling of the EPW and their possessions. Additionally, it enables the Commander to take follow-on action (either military or legal) against the enemy.

If equipment, documents, or personal property is confiscated during the search, it must be tagged and administratively accounted for by the capturing unit. As soon as you capture an EPW, you must complete a capture tag. The capture tag must indicate the following information:
-Name of the EPW.
-Rank.
-Service number.
-Date of birth.
-Date of capture.
-EPWs unit.
-Location of capture.
-Capturing unit.
-Special circumstances of capture.
-Description of weapons/documents.

A capture tag, each of which contains the 10 items listed above, is perforated in three parts. The form is individually numbered and is constructed of durable, waterproof, tear-resistant material, and has reinforced eye-holes at the top of parts A and C. Part A is attached to the detainee with wire, string, or other type of durable material. Part B is retained by the capturing unit and maintained in the unit's records. Part C is attached to the property confiscated from the detainee, so that it may later be matched to that detainee.

Due to the confusion that is normally present on the battlefield, front-line Marines are not always able to complete the capture tag. All personnel who handle EPWs should be trained in the importance of filling out the tag and in the unit's administrative standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling EPW paperwork.

If the Marine who captured the EPW has been unable to fill out the capture tag, the person who accepts custody of the EPW for purposes of guarding or transporting them must fill in the missing information immediately upon taking custody of the EPW.
Other documents that may need to be filled out when dealing with EPWs:
-Coalition Provisional Authority Forces Apprehension Forms (CPA form)
-DA Form 2823, Sworn Statements
-NAVMC 11130, Statement of Force
Report

Accurate, timely reporting is essential. Ensure that the 5W's (Who, What, Where, When, Why) are reported to higher as soon as possible.

Who
State the name(s), gender(s), status (military, civilian, etc) of detainee(s). Report the capturing unit and the reporting unit.

What
Acknowledge whether detainee or EPW (if known).
Report the reason for detainment, the operation being conducted during Detainment/custody and actions that were taken by the detainee/EPW and the detaining/reporting unit during custody/capture.

Where
Notify higher of the grid coordinate(s) of detainment and grid coordinate(s) of current location.
Report all other details (room/building, city/province/state, etc).

When
State date time group (DTG) of detainment and current DTG of report.

Why
Report reason for detainment and what supporting documentation has been acquired/created to ensure proper custody.

Report the situation and custody of persons with in-depth detail. The information reported will be used by HUMINT/CI Marines during tactical questioning and needs to be correctly reported.

Much of the information reported will be included on the 'Tag' that you attach to the detainee/EPW, but communication and the report to higher allows the proper authorities to coordinate facilities, medical care, and proper means of transportation. Include
numbers of detainees/EPWs, how you intend to transfer them to higher or whether you need support in transport, and a timeline of delivery to higher.
Report the medical condition of any detainees/EPWs and ensure that immediate care is planned for and provided according to the Law of Armed Conflict and the Geneva Convention.

Prioritize detainees/EPWs based upon their intelligence credibility, their status as a High Value Individual, danger towards unit, and medical condition. Ensure that you include the reason(s) for prioritization to higher and the timeline with which they should be transported.
Segregation of EPW's and OD's

The segregation of EPWs by categories first requires that individual EPWs be identified as belonging to a particular category. While time does not permit the detailed interrogation of EPWs to make all such determinations, it may be possible to readily identify and separate EPWs, according to the following categories:
-Male and Female.
-Officer and Enlisted.
-Military and Civilian.
-Ethnic groups.
-Old and Young.

If circumstances permit, segregation of EPWs by these categories is desirable and will serve to facilitate follow-on HUMINT interrogation. It may also be necessary to segregate EPWs by nationality, religion, and specific ideology. This segregation ensures the security, health, and welfare of the prisoners. Along with silencing the EPWs, it serves to diminish their immediate ability to mount a resistance and attempt to escape.

Segregation should prevent prisoners from communicating by voice or visual means. Guards will communicate with the prisoners only to give commands and instructions.

Do not let the EPWs talk to each other. This keeps them from planning an escape, fabricating stories, threatening one another and cautioning each other on security. If necessary, use gags or seclude them from one another. Be aware that there may be theatre-specific regulations regarding the proper silencing of EPWs.
While EPWs should remain silenced, report anything an EPW says or does in detainment prior to hand-off to higher.

Medical Care during Segregation of EPW's and OD's
EPWs that are wounded are entitled to medical assistance and will not be denied immediate first aid or medical care, as appropriate. However, priority for medical care will go to friendly casualties first.
Medical care, medical equipment and supplies to permit the administering of emergency first aid, will be available at each EPW collection point and EPW holding area.

For evacuation purposes, EPWs are classified as walking wounded, non-walking wounded or sick. Walking wounded EPWs are evacuated through military police EPW evacuation channels. Non-walking wounded and the sick are delivered to the nearest medical aid station and evacuated through medical channels.

At all times, EPWs and detained personnel will remain physically segregated from US and allied patients during their medical care in order to maintain security.
Under all circumstances, EPWs will receive humane treatment without distinction founded on race, nationality, religious belief, political opinions or other similar criteria. The EPW may not be murdered, mutilated, tortured, degraded or punished for alleged criminal acts without a previous judgment pronounced by a legally constituted court. Remember, individuals, as well as capturing nations are responsible for acts that are committed against EPWs in violation of the Geneva Convention.

As a result, EPWs are safeguarded as they are moved and they must be restrained but not abused. The obligation to safeguard includes allowing an EPW to retain items of personal protection (e.g., helmets and flak jackets) as the Geneva Convention forbids a captor from placing an EPW at greater risk than his captors. If the Marines who capture an EPW are wearing their helmets and flak jackets, these items of personal protection should not be confiscated from the EPWs.

Once an EPW is sent to the rear and interned in a safe facility removed from the area of operations, the items of personal protection may then be confiscated. This does not include weapons of any sort. The obligation to safeguard prisoners includes preventing or stopping any/all violent action that occurs between EPWs while they are being detained.

If the unit is going to reach a friendly position relatively soon, prisoners are not given food or water until they have been questioned. If the unit will not return to a friendly position for a long period, food and water are provided to prisoners.

Prisoners will not be located next to obvious targets such as ammunition sites, fuel facilities, or communications equipment. First aid and medical treatment will be provided to the same extent that the US provides to its own forces. Sick and wounded prisoners will be evacuated separately, but in the same manner as US and allied forces. Accountability and security of prisoners and their possessions in medical facilities is the responsibility of the respective echelon commander.

Repatriation (return) of EPWs should not be considered until directed by higher headquarters. Prisoners will not be forcefully repatriated against their will. Prisoners who refuse repatriation will be treated as prisoners of war until their legal status and further disposition can be determined by competent authority.
While it is unlikely to occur, there are special policies pertaining to the temporary detention of EPWs aboard US Naval Vessels
- Detention of EPW on board naval vessels will be limited.
- EPW recovered at sea may be temporarily held on board as operational needs dictate, pending a reasonable opportunity to transfer them to a shore facility, or to another vessel for transfer to a shore facility.
- EPW may be temporarily held aboard naval vessels while being transported between land facilities. They may also be treated and temporarily quartered aboard naval vessels incidental to their treatment, to receive necessary and appropriate medical attention if such detention would appreciably improve their health or safety prospects.
- Holding of EPW on vessels must be temporary, limited to the minimum period necessary to evacuate them from the combat zone or to avoid significant harm that would be faced if detained on land.
Use of immobilized vessels for temporary holding of EPW is not authorized without Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) approval.
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