Chapter 12- Leadership

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1. someone who has followers
2. the act of influencing others towards a goal
2 definitions of leadership
leadership vs. management
distinction is not very clear anymore b/w two. most of the time people refer to them as same
1. task leaders
2. social emotional leaders
2 camps of leaders
1. selectively show weaknesses
2. rely on intuition
3. use taught empathy
4. reveal their differences
4 effective things leaders do according to "why should anyone be led by you" article
1. early trait approaches (1920-50s)
2. behavioral style approaches (1950-65)
3. contingency/situational theories (1965-85)
4. more recent approaches (1970-present)
approaches/theories towards leadership over time
early trait approaches
multiple theorists under this leadership approach. thought that there are certain traits that separate leaders from followers. based on trying to find traits that identify who are leaders. comes from industrial revolution which focused on efficiency for expansion of business. not specific to business schools. found it was more situational based
extraversion, conscientiousness
2 traits that seemed to emerge among leaders
Behavioral style approaches
under this theory of leadership Ohio State, Michigan and Managerial grid theories fall under this. claims that leaders exhibit a certain combination of relationship building and task completion behaviors. looked more at what leaders were doing rather than who they were as people. what you are doing is either connecting with you as person or getting job done
contingency/situational approaches
includes Fielder's theory, Hersey and Blanchard, Substitutes for leadership theories. claims that different leader behaviors are needed depending on the situation. emphasized situational aspect of leadership
more recent leadership approaches
transformational/transactional, charismatic and visionary, path-goal, global leadership, emotional intelligence, servant leadership, authentic leadership theories are included. moves back towards traits with leadership
1. Ohio State
2. Michigan
3. Managerial Grid
3 different theories among Behavioral style approaches to leadership
1. Fielder's theory
2. Hersey and Blanchard
3. Substitutes for Leadership
3 theories under contingency/situational approaches to leadership
1. transformational/transactional
2. charismatic and visionary
3. path-goal
4. global leadership
5. emotional intelligence
6. servant leadership
7. authentic leadership
7 theories under more recent approaches to leadership
early trait approaches
leadership approaches that moved into period of dormancy b/w 50s, 60s, 70s. people believed there was no way we could look at characteristics/traits to identify leaders. in 70s found something about traits that there are characteristics of leaders that are motivating in times of change. certain traits separate leaders and followers is a belief
transactional vs. transformational
approach to leadership that says there are 2 types of leaders.
one guides and motivates through clarification.
one is charismatic, intellectually stimulating, and treats subordinates as individuals
transactional leader
leader that guides and motivates through clarification. ensure that employees demonstrate the right behaviors and provide resources in exchange. provide contingent rewards and manage by exception
transformational leader
leaders who are charismatic, intellectually stimulating, and treat subordinates as individuals. lead employees by aligning employee goals with leader's goals. use their charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration to influence their followers
charismatic and visionary leadership
approach to leadership that is recent extension of transformational leadership
emotional intelligence
approach to leadership that focuses on self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy and social skills
1. leader based
2. relationship based
3. follower based
3 general approaches theories of leadership can fall under
1. early trait approaches
2. transactional vs. transformational (and charismatic and visionary)
3. emotional intelligence
3 leader-based theories of leadershipn
characteristic/trait-based
what "Why Should Anyone be led by you?" article's leadership approach was based on
1. selectively show their weaknesses
2. rely on intuition
3. manage with "tough empathy"
4. reveal their differences
4 things great leaders do according to "why should anyone be led by you?
1. everyone can be a leader
2. leaders deliver business results
3. people who get to the top are leaders
4. leaders are great coaches
4 myths about leadership according to "why should anyone be led by you?
1. depends on teaching skills that forward your ability
2. must want to be in a leadership role
2 conditions that answer question of can anyone be a leader?
must have experience and motivation
2 requirements to if leadership can be taught
charismatic leadership
what is leader-based leadership
1. develop and communicate vision
2. utilize symbols
3. inspire pride
what do leader-based leaders do
can create major change
advantage of leader-based leadership
dependent on leader
disadvantage of leader-based leadership
fundamental change needed
when leader-based leadership is appropriate
1. behavioral style approaches (Ohio State, Michigan, Managerial Grid)
2. Situational Leadership Models (Fiedler's Theory, Hersey and Blanchard, Situational Leadership)
3. Leader Member Exchange Theory
3 Relationship Based Approaches to Leadership
behavioral style approaches
approach to leadership that claims that leaders exhibit certain combination of relationship building and task completion behaviors
Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
leadership approach that claims leadership is not just adapting style to situation but thinking about each of followers as different person/situation that you need to adapt to. claims you must have relationships with everyone on team. most focused on theory currently
Ohio State, Michigan, Managerial Grid
3 leadership theories under behavioral style approach
Fiedler's Theory, Hersey and Blanchard, Situational Leadership
3 theories under Situational Leadership Models Approaches to leadership
Fiedler's Theory
Contingency theory of leadership. claims a leader's style is measured by a scale called Least Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC). the person is rated in terms of how friendly, nice, and cooperative the person is. claims different people can be effective in different situations. score is akin to personality traits. put right people in right situation or change situation to suit an individual will increase effectiveness
Low LPC Leader
LPC of leader in favorable situation with
1. good leader-subordinate relations, high position of power, high task structure
2. good leader-subordinate relations, high position of power, low task structure
3. good leader-subordinate relations, low position of power, high task structure
according to Fiedler's Theory
High LPC Leader
LPC of leader in medium situation with
1. good leader-subordinate relations, low position of power, low task structure
2. poor leader-subordinate relations, high position of power, high task structure
3. poor leader-subordinate relations, high position of power, low task structure
4. poor leader-subordinate relations, high position of power, low task structure
5. poor leader-subordinate relations, low position of power, high task structure
according to Fiedler Theory
Low LPC Leader
LPC of leader in unfavorable situation with
1. poor leader-subordinate position, low position of power, low task structure
according to Fiedler Theory
Blanchard and Hersey's Situational Leadership
theory of leadership that argues that leaders must use different leadership styles depending on their follower's development level. employee readiness is key factor to determining proper leadership style (combination of competence and commitment levels). summarizes level of directive and supportive behaviors that leaders may exhibit. must use right style of behaviors at right time in employees' development to be effective leaders
directing behavior
according to blanchard hersey theory, the recommended leader style for followers with readiness levels of:
low competence, high commitment
coaching behavior
according to blanchard hersey theory, the recommended leader style for followers with readiness levels of:
low competence, low commitment
supporting behavior
according to blanchard hersey theory, the recommended leader style for followers with readiness levels of:
moderate to high competence, variable commitment
delegating behavior
according to blanchard hersey theory, the recommended leader style for followers with readiness levels of:
high competence, high commitment
path-goal theory
theory of leadership that is based on expectancy theory of motivation. suggests that employees are motivated when they believe or expect that
1. their effort will lead to high performance
2. high performance will be rewarded
3. rewards they will receive will be valuable to them
leaders main job in this theory is to make sure that all 3 of preceding conditions exist. makes predictions about what type of leader behavior will be effective under which circumstances
directive
appropriate leadership style according to path-goal theory of leadership when situation is:
employees have high role ambiguity
employees have low abilities
employees have external locus of control
supportive
appropriate leadership style according to path-goal theory of leadership when situation is:
tasks are boring and repetitive
tasks are stressful
participative
appropriate leadership style according to path-goal theory of leadership when situation is:
employees have high abilities
decision is relevant to employees
employees have high internal locus of control
achievement-oriented
appropriate leadership style according to path-goal theory of leadership when situation is:
employees have high abilities
employees have high achievement motivation
directive leaders
under path-goal theory: leaders who provide specific directions to their employees by clarifying role expectations, setting schedules, and making sure that employees know what to do on a given work day
supportive leaders
under path-goal theory: leaders who provide emotional support to employees. treat employees well, care about htem on a personal level and they are encouraging
participative leaders
under path-goal theory: leaders who make sure that employees are involved in the making of important decisions
achievement-oriented leaders
under path-goal theory: leaders who set goals for employees and encourage them to reach their goals
1. directive
2. supportive
3. participative
4. achievement oriented
4 different leadership styles under path-goal theory of leadership
1. contingent rewards
2. active management by exception
3. passive management by exception
3 ways transactional leaders change and inspire their companies
active management by exception
leaving employees alone but at the same time proactively predicting potential problems and preventing them from occurring
passive management by exception
leaving employees alone but then coming to the rescue if anything goes wrong
1. charisma
2. inspirational motivation
3. intellectual stimulation
4. individualized consideration
4 tools transformational leaders have and use to influence employees and create commitment to company goals
intellectual stimulation
when leaders challenge organizational norms and status quo, and encourage employees to think creatively and work harder
inspirational motivation
when leaders come up with a vision that is inspiring to others
individualized consideration
when leaders show personal care and concern for the well being of their followers
charisma
behavior leaders demonstrate that creates confidence in commitment to and admiration for the leader
trust
reason why transformational leadership is effective
demonstrate both to maximize effectiveness
is it more effective for leaders to be transformational or transactional
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
leadership theory that proposes the type of relationship leaders have with their followers/members of the organization is key to understanding how leaders influence employees. leaders form different types of relationships with their employees
high quality LMX relationships
low quality LMX relationships
2 types of relationships leaders form with employees according to leadership-member exchange theory
high-quality LMX relationship
high quality, trust-based relationship b/w a leader and a follower. members are more satisfied with their jobs, more committed to companies, and have higher levels of clarity about what is expected of them, perform at higher level. more comfortable seeking feedback or information
low-quality LMX relationship
a situation in which the leader and the employee have lower levels of trust, liking, and respect toward each other. employees may not have access to as positive a work environment, may feel that their situation is unfair, may be rewarded less b/c opposite relationship receives the benefit of the doubt
interpersonal factors
besides high performance, another necessity to develop a high-quality exchange
servant leadership
a leadership approach that defines the leader's role as serving the needs of others. primary mission of leader is to develop employees and help them reach their goals. put their employees first, understand their personal needs and desires, empower them, and help them develop in their careers
authentic leadership
a leadership approach advising leaders to stay true to their own values.
key characteristics: self-aware, introspective, not afraid to act the way they are (have high levels of personal integrity), say what they think and behave in way that is consistent with values and remain true to themselves. requires understanding of oneself. likely to lead to greater levels of satisfaction, performance and overall well being on part of employees
trust, respect and mutual obligation= influence
what are relationship-based leadership approaches
builds strong relationships with followers
what do relationship based leaders do
accommodates differences among followers
what advantages do relationship-based approaches have
time consuming
what disadvantages do relationship-based approaches have
stability and diversity among followers
when are relationship-based approaches appropriate?
Follower-Based Theories
approach to leadership that includes the
1. leader participation model
2. substitutes for leadership
leader participation model (Vroom and Yetton)
leadership theory that is set of rules to determine the amount of participative decision making desirable in different situations
leader participation model (Vroom and Yetton)
decision-making took to help leaders determine how much involvement they should seek when making decisions. model starts by having leaders answer several key questions and work their way through decision tree based on their response. research supports validity of this model
1. decision significance
2. importance of commitment
3. leader expertise
4. likelihood of commitment
5. goal alignment
6. group expertise
7. team competence
7 questions in Leaders participation model (Vroom and Yetton) that are answered as high or low as you go down decision tree
1. decide (leader makes decision alone)
2. consult individually (obtains additional information from individuals before making decision)
3. consult as group (asks for groups opinion then leader makes final decision alone)
4. facilitate (leader share information with group and acts as facilitator and sets parameters of decision)
5. delegate ( leader lets team make decision)
5 decision making styles under Leaders participation model (Vroom and Yetton)
substitutes for leadership
model that certain characteristics of the subordinates, task, and organization can neutralize or eliminate the need for leadership. looks at characteristics of followers rather than leaders
independent, professional, skilled workers (experience + training)
characteristics of subordinates that can neutralize or eliminates need for leadership according to substitutes for leadership theory
routine, intrinsically satisfying work
characteristics of task that can neutralize eliminates need for leadership according to substitutes for leadership theory
highly formalized, rigid organization or one with cohesive work groups
characteristics of organization that can neutralized or that eliminates need for leadership according to substitutes for leadership theory
ability to manage one's own performance
what follower-based leadership is
empower, coach, facilitate, give up control
what follower-based leader does
makes the most of follower capabilities
what are advantages of follower based leadership
depends on follower initiative and ability
what are disadvantages of follower based leadership
committed and capable followers
when is follower-based leadership appropriate
structural cultural model of leader behavior
states that women often experience lack of respect, lack of power and stereotypical expectations thus women will display different leadership styles from men
socialization model
states that all leaders have been selected and socialized by the same organization, thus men and women will display similar leadership styles
structural-cultural model of leader behavior, socialization model
2 models of leadership that dictates whether women lead differently than men
leadership style matches situation
when can men and women both be effective leaders?
1. honesty
2. decisiveness
3. being trustworthy
4. being fair
According to GLOBE global similarities in leadership:
universal strengths of a leader include:
1. being irritable
2. being egocentric
3. being a loner
According to GLOBE global similarities in leadership:
universal weaknesses of a leader include:
situation and followers
what the choice of leader, follower, or relationship based leadership depends upon
relationships
in stable times, leaders may need different ___________________ with each follower. (really depends on situation)
traits, needs
leadership may be improved but __________________ and ______________ do have an influence. (can be taught to a degree)
culture, gender
________________ and ______________________ can impact leadership style and how effective it will be in certain situations
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