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Abnormal Psychology: Test 2

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Chapter 7
Mood Disorders & Suicide
Quiz Question 7.1:
A loss of interest in everything in life is called _____.
anhedonia
Quiz Question 7.2:
Most people who are suicidal never seek treatment because they fear the stigma associated with suicide.
TRUE
Quiz Question 7.3:
A person filled with grandiose self-esteem, displaying rapid speech and impulsive behaviors, and showing an elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least one week is exhibiting symptoms of _____.
mania
Quiz Question 7.4:
If a person experiences depressed mood or loss of interest in usual activities, and at least four other depressive symptoms for at least two weeks, and these symptoms are severe enough to interfere with the person's ability to function in everyday life, the person meets the criteria for _____.
major depressive disorder
Quiz Question 7.5:
In cognitive therapy, therapists look for four types of problems in depressed individuals: grief, role transitions, role disputes, and skill deficits
FALSE
Quiz Question 7.6:
According to interpersonal theories of depression, some depressed people have a heightened need for approval and expressions of support from others but at the same time easily perceive rejection by others, a characteristic called rejection _____.
sensitivity
Quiz Question 7.7:
Bart has been diagnosed with major depression. Recently he has been experiencing hallucinations. He sees mystical beings cloaked in white swooping down from the sky trying to "whisk" him away. Bart is most likely experiencing major depression with _____.
psychotic features
Quiz Question 7.8:
Women are _____ likely than men to attempt suicide and _____ likely than men to complete suicide.
MORE ; LESS
Anhedonia
-loss of interest in everything in life
-symptom of depression
Major depressive disorder
(diagnosis)
-must last two weeks or more
-must have depressed mood or loss of interest in activities
-must have 4 other symptoms
-must interfere with daily functioning
Persistent depressive disorder (diagnosis)
-depressed mood most of the day for more days than not
-2 or more other symptoms
>poor appetite
>insomnia
>hypersomnia
>low energy or fatigue
>low self esteem
>poor concentration
>hopelessness
-must last at least two years and can't have been without symptoms for more than 2 months
Disorder most comorbid with depression
Persistent Depressive Disorder
Mania
-state of persistently elevated, expansive, elated mood; can be mixed with irritation and agitation
-unrealistic, positive and grandiose (inflated self-esteem)
-rapid speech
-flight of thoughts (fantastical)
-impulsive behaviors; risky behaviors
-intense pursuit of goals but may not finish
>>>these symptoms must impair the individual's functionality.
>>>people who experience manic episodes meeting these criteria are said to have bipolar I
Cognitive theories of depression
-Negative cognitive triad: People have negative views of themselves, the world, and the future
-Reformulated learned helplessness theory: explains how cognitive factors might influence whether a person becomes helpless and depressed following a negative event
-Ruminative response style: focusing intently on personal concerns and feelings of distress repetitively and passively
Personality factor most associated with suicide
-Impulsivity: tendency to act on one's impulses rather than inhibiting them: Personality factor MOST predicts suicide
-Hopelessness: Feeling that the future is bleak and there is no way to make it more positive: Cognitive factor that MOST predicts suicide
Suicide and gender differences
-Women are 2-3x more likely to attempt than men
-Men are 4x more likely to complete suicide
-Leads to the Differences?: the means of the attempt and the certainty of the decision
Lithium and lethality
-can have positive effects on depressive symptoms in people with depression
-can also prevent or relieve symptoms of mania
-also helps people with mood disorders
-people who take lithium must be monitored carefully, to induce the toxic side of it (drugs used to treat manic and depressive symptoms)
Attempted suicide vs. completed suicide
(What are they & which is more common)
-Suicide attempts: may or may not end in death (20x more common)
-Completed suicide: ends in death
Chapter 5
Trauma, Anxiety, OCD, & Related Disorders
Quiz Question 5.1:
Which of the following is a true statement about obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)?
Obsessive thoughts are distressing to people with OCD
Quiz Question 5.2:
Which diagnosis is most likely when panic attacks that are not usually provoked by any particular situation become a common occurrence, leading one to begin to worry about having the attacks and change behaviors as a result?
Panic Disorder
Quiz Question 5.3:
Julie has been diagnosed with ornithophobia—the fear of birds. For her treatment, her therapist makes her sit in a room filled with caged birds for several hours. Julie's friend Mark tells her that the therapist used an effective technique called systematic desensitization. Is what Mark said true or false?
FALSE
Quiz Question 5.4:
Which of the following is an example of a compulsion?
Repeatedly checking the locks on all doors
Quiz Question 5.5:
Bradley was 12 years old when lightning struck his home. Now he becomes very anxious every time the sky darkens. If a storm begins, he exhibits panic symptoms and frantically searches for an area in the house where he feels safe. Bradley is most likely suffering from a natural environment type phobia.
FALSE
Quiz Question 5.6:
What is a key difference between adaptive fear responses and maladaptive anxiety responses?
Maladaptive responses are out of proportion to the threat, whereas adaptive responses are appropriate to the situation.
Quiz Question 5.7:
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a consequence of:
experiencing extreme stressors
Quiz Question 5.8:
Janie's house was broken into and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since then, she has been dreaming about the attack and often wakes up screaming and crying. According to Janie, she feels as though she is reliving the attack in each dream. Janie is most likely:
re-experiencing the trauma
Maladaptive Anxiety Responses
-fear is maladaptive when it is greatly out of proportion to the threat
Adaptive Anxiety
Responses
-fear is adaptive when: it is realistic in proportion to the threat
-gone when the threat is gone leads to behaviors to overcome the threat
Anxiety
fear becomes anxiety when it persists long after the threat has subsided
Anxiety disorders
develop when people exhibit maladaptive behaviors in response to a threat
Fight or Flight Response
-a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system activated by stress or fear that includes increased heart rate, enhanced muscle activity, and increased respiration
-activation controlled from 2 systems: autonomic nervous and adrenal-cortical system
-a set of physical and psychological responses that help us fight a threat or flee from it
PTSD: What is it?
Symptoms & what they are
-a mental disorder marked by a traumatic event and the re-experiencing of the event through unwanted memories, nightmares, flashbacks, and images
-This disorder also involves worry and physical symptoms of anxiety
DSM-5:
>>>directly experience or witness traumatic event
>>>learn that the event happened to someone they are close to
>>>experience repeated or extreme exposure to details of traumatic event.
-about 7% of adults will experience it
>>>Symptoms:
must have symptoms for more than a month
>>>4 types of symptoms:
-repeated experiencing of traumatic event
-persistent avoidance of situations, thoughts, or memories associated with trauma
-negative changes in thoughts and mood associated with the event
-hypervigilance and chronic arousal
-dissociation- sense of self and consciousness become disconnected
>>>Women are more likely to have it/ African Americans get it more
Agoraphobia
a mental disorder marked by avoidance of places where one might have an embarrassing or intense panic attack
Types of phobias
-animal type: focus on specific animals or insects (spiders /insects / dogs)
-natural environment type: focus on events or situations in natural environment (water/ heights/ storms)
-Situational type: fear of public transportation, tunnels, bridges, elevators, flying or driving (airplanes/ elevators/ enclosed places)
-blood injection injury type: feat of seeing blood or injury (needles/ medical procedure)
Flooding
-behavioral technique in which the client is intensively exposed to a feared object until anxiety diminishes
-(also called implosive therapy)
Systematic desensitization
-type of behavior therapy that attempts to reduce client anxiety through relaxation techniques and progressive exposure to feared stimuli
modeling
Process of learning behaviors by imitating others, especially authority figures or people like oneself
Benzodiazapines
function: drugs that reduce anxiety and insomnia
Most effective treatment to prevent relapse in panic disorders
-cognitive-behavioral therapies appear to be as successful as medications in reducing symptoms -better than medications at preventing relapse
survivor guilt
is a mental condition that occurs when a person perceives themselves to have done wrong by surviving a traumatic event when others did not
Chapter 8
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Quiz Question 8.1:
Which of the following is the most common hallucination?
Auditory
Quiz Question 8.2:
Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia are evident:
prior to the onset of the acute phase
Quiz Question 8.3:
What is the concordance rate for schizophrenia in monozygotic (MZ) twins?
Compiled results of several studies indicate a rate of 46 percent
Quiz Question 8.4:
A person with schizophrenia may exhibit disorganized speech patterns that are completely incoherent to listeners. This is known as word salad.
TRUE
Quiz Question 8.5:
A severe reduction or complete absence of emotional responses to the environment in people with schizophrenia is called derailment.
FALSE
Quiz Question 8.6:
Julia suddenly experienced delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech but these symptoms lasted for only 3 days. She is most likely to be diagnosed with _____.
brief psychotic disorder
Quiz Question 8.7:
Psychosis refers to knowing the difference between:
what is real and what is not real
Quiz Question 8.8:
Delusions are to _____ as hallucinations are to _____.
thoughts; perceptions
Quiz Question 8.9:
In the DSM-5, schizotypal personality disorder is recognized as a part of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
TRUE
Quiz Question 8.10:
Fred believes that the FBI has put a wiretap on his phone, and they are trying to entrap him. Most likely, Fred is experiencing a _____.
persecutory delusion
Quiz Question 8.11:
Families tend to be more forgiving of the negative symptoms of the individual with schizophrenia than positive emotions, because negative emotions appear uncontrollable.
FALSE
Quiz Question 8.12:
Which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia is a person most likely to overcome with the help of medication?
Hallucinations
% of population to develop Schizophrenia in their lifetime
0.5-2%
most people with schizophrenia live where and how?
live independently or with family. 34% independently 25% with family
Delusions
are ideas that an individual believes are true but that are highly unlikely and often simply impossible
Difference between self-deceptions and delusions
-Self-deceptions are at least possible
-they think about the belief occasionally and people with delusions are preoccupied with thinking about their beliefs
-self-deception people know their belief might be wrong but delusional people are resistant to believe otherwise
Hallucinations
what are they: unreal perceptual experiences
types of delusions
9 types: persecutory delusions: false belief that oneself or one's loved ones are being persecuted, watched or conspired against by others -delusion of reference: belief that everyday events, objects, or other people have an unusual personal significance -Grandiose delusion: False belief that one has great power, knowledge, or talent or that one is a famous and powerful person -Delusion of being controlled: Belief that one's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are being imposed or controlled by external force -thought broadcast: Belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast from one's mind for others to hear. Thought insertion: Belief that another person or object is inserting thoughts into one's mind. Thought withdrawal: Belief that thoughts are being removed from one's mind by another person or by an object. Delusion of guilt or sin: False belief that one has committed a terrible act or is responsible for a terrible event. Somatic Delusion: False beliefs that one's appearance or part of one's body is diseases or altered.
Difference between delusions and hallucinations
-Delusions are erroneous beliefs and hallucinations are perceptions of stimuli that don't actually exist. >For example, a delusion may be a belief that the government is controlled by reptilian men who are poisoning the water supply to enslave the masses. -A hallucination may be hearing "voices" or seeing ghosts.
Neologisms word salad, clangs
Neologisms: words that mean just something to the person, Word Salad: incoherent speech (does not make any sense at all). Clangs: making associations between the sounds and words rather than context. Loose Association: Tendency to slip from one topic to another with no coherent transition. Catatonia: Group of disorganized behaviors that reflect an extreme unresponsiveness to the environment and outside world.

ex) lack of response to instructions
Tardive dyskinesia
Neurological disorder marked by involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or jaw, resulting from taking neuroleptic drugs
Most common type of hallucination (sensory)
auditory hallucinations (hearing voices, music and so on)
Chapter 9
Personality Disorders
Quiz Question 9.1:
Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder tend to seek _____.
Admiration
Quiz Question 9.2:
Drug treatments for people with borderline personality disorders have focused on reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression.
TRUE
Quiz Question 9.3:
The DSM-5 approach to diagnosing personality disorders differs from its approach to other types of disorders in that it explicitly incorporates a _____ perspective into the diagnosis.:
Continuum
Quiz Question 9.4:
People with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are often workaholics who see little need for
leisure activities.
TRUE
Quiz Question 9.5:
Which of the following characterizes schizotypal personality disorder?
Bizarre or idiosyncratic worldviews
Quiz Question 9.6:
People with Narcissistic Personality Disorder are preoccupied with fantasies of power and success.
TRUE
Quiz Question 9.7:
Borderline personality disorder is characterized by hypersensitivity to _____.
abandonment
Quiz Question 9.8:
A nationwide study in the United States found about _____ percent of men could be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder.
8
Quiz Question 9.9:
Jen, a second-year medical student, attempted suicide at least 10 times before entering therapy. Her attempts to hurt herself usually followed arguments with her husband about getting a divorce. Jen is most likely to be diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder.
FALSE
Quiz Question 9.10:
Under the DSM-5 approach, the first step in diagnosing a personality disorder is determining:
whether an individual has any pathological traits.
Quiz Question 9.11:
When an individual fails to develop a sense of self-identity and a capacity for interpersonal functioning that are adaptive in the individual's relationships, he or she may be diagnosed with a(n) _____ disorder.
Personality
Quiz Question 9.12:
About 75 percent of people with Borderline Personality Disorder attempt suicide, but almost all are unsuccessful due to timely intervention.
False
Personality
enduring patterns of perceiving, feeling, thinking about, and relating yo oneself and the environment
Personality Disorder
Chronis pattern of maladaptive cognition, emotion, and behavior that begins by adolescence or early adulthood and continues into later adulthood.
Borderline PD
Syndrome characterized by rapidly shifting and unstable mood, self-concept, and interpersonal relationships, as well as impulsive behavior and transient dissociative states.

Features:

out of control emotions

tend to be clingy

history of hurting oneself

idealize people and switch to despising them when they ignore them or mess up.

periods of grandiosity

(Most common in women)
Splitting
-deals with people with borderline PD.

-they tend to see themselves and other people as either all good or all bad.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
wants flattering attention

draws attention to oneself

unstable relations

self centered and shallow
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
defining features: Acts dramatic

needs to be liked

thinks highly of self

makes demands on others to follow

exploits others to gain power
Avoidant Personality Disorder
defining features: Low self esteem

lonely

depressed

want to be around people but avoids them because of fear of being criticized.

prone to shame

extremely anxious about being insulted or criticized
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
perfectionism as a factor: Base self-esteem based on productivity

Preoccupied with rules, details, and order

stubborn

hard time appreciating others

hard time tolerating quirks of others

unreasonably high goals

perfectionism
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
defining features: most similar to schizophrenia but milder- maintain contact with reality- no hallucinations.

socially isolated

uncomfortable in social situations

odd behavior and beliefs

magical thinking