Who saw optimal activities in the "flow" channel moving outward as skills are gained
Who discovered the theory of proximal development in learning situations
Looks different across the lifespan. Self-expression, surplus energy.
Unobligated time, state of being, and consumption patterns
Refers to activity, as in participation in recreation or a recreation activity
State of being fully engaged in an activity leads to energy, focus, and success that often turn out to be the optimal life experience
Ancient Greece; Athenian ideal, Plato
Athenian- Combination of soldier, athlete, artist, statesman, and philosopher.
Plato- Leisure was route to happiness and the good life.
Athenian philosophers believed..
Play was essential to healthy growth.
Leisure was opportunity.
Schole: time to enjoy the arts
Ancient Greek Games
chariot races, combat, boxing & foot races
Curiales- Owned 25 or more acres of land
Plebes- free common men
Coloni- Lower class
Differences between play or Greeks & Romans
Greeks saw leisure as an opportunity
Romans perceived leisure to be primarily rest from work
Work on Earth = entry into Heaven
Play important part of education
Who adopted the Playground Movement in the United States first
New York City
Who had the concept of a "sand garden"
Dr. Maria Zakrzewska
What is Philosophy
Provides obscure answers to theoretical issues
Plato separated "good" leisure activities from "bad"
Advocated the repression of women and slaves
Weber's work ethic
Weber created the construct of the "Protestant work ethic"
It is work- not leisure- that makes life worth living
Russell's work ethic
Preindustrial societies were based on a "slave morality"
Pieper's work ethic
We no longer know what leisure is; we live in a totally work- oriented culture
Metaphysics; Traditional & Modern
Traditional- Set of life circumstances
Modern- Psychological state, how person perceives a situation
Epistemology; Empiricists & Rationalists
Rationalists- Ideas generated by our minds
Planning, budgeting, policy creation, all based on logic
Questions the nature of beauty and value that we associate with art and natural environment
Natural association between leisure and good
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