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Ch. 1, 18, 2, 3, 4,12,

Who saw optimal activities in the "flow" channel moving outward as skills are gained


Who discovered the theory of proximal development in learning situations



Looks different across the lifespan. Self-expression, surplus energy.


Unobligated time, state of being, and consumption patterns


Refers to activity, as in participation in recreation or a recreation activity


State of being fully engaged in an activity leads to energy, focus, and success that often turn out to be the optimal life experience

Ancient Greece; Athenian ideal, Plato

Athenian- Combination of soldier, athlete, artist, statesman, and philosopher.
Plato- Leisure was route to happiness and the good life.

Athenian philosophers believed..

Play was essential to healthy growth.
Leisure was opportunity.
Schole: time to enjoy the arts

Ancient Greek Games

chariot races, combat, boxing & foot races

Ancient Rome

Senators- Richest
Curiales- Owned 25 or more acres of land
Plebes- free common men
Coloni- Lower class

Differences between play or Greeks & Romans

Greeks saw leisure as an opportunity
Romans perceived leisure to be primarily rest from work

Protestant Reformation

Work on Earth = entry into Heaven


Play important part of education

Who adopted the Playground Movement in the United States first

New York City

Who had the concept of a "sand garden"

Dr. Maria Zakrzewska

What is Philosophy

Provides obscure answers to theoretical issues

Plato's Philosophy

Plato separated "good" leisure activities from "bad"

Aristotle's Philosophy

Advocated the repression of women and slaves

Weber's work ethic

Weber created the construct of the "Protestant work ethic"
It is work- not leisure- that makes life worth living

Russell's work ethic

Preindustrial societies were based on a "slave morality"

Pieper's work ethic

We no longer know what leisure is; we live in a totally work- oriented culture

Metaphysics; Traditional & Modern

Traditional- Set of life circumstances
Modern- Psychological state, how person perceives a situation

Epistemology; Empiricists & Rationalists

Empiricists- Perception
Rationalists- Ideas generated by our minds


Planning, budgeting, policy creation, all based on logic


Questions the nature of beauty and value that we associate with art and natural environment


Natural association between leisure and good





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