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Kinesiology Quiz 3
Terms in this set (30)
muscle property of being sensitive or responsive to chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli
the ability of muscle to contract and develop tension or internal force against resistance when stimulated, unique to muscles
the ability of muscle to be passively stretched beyond its normal resting length
the ability of muscle to return to its original resting length following stretching
consists of a single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
require fewer motor units to be recruited and there are fewer muscle fibers per motor unit.
require more motor units to be recruited and there are more muscle fibers per motor unit
a muscle or muscle group that is described as being primarily responsible for a specific joint movement when contracting
a muscle or muscle group that counteracts or opposes the contraction of another muscle or muscle group
muscles that surround the joint or body part and contract to fixate or stabilize the area to enable another limb or body segment to exert force and move; known as fixators, they are essential in establishing a relatively firm base for the more distal joints to work from when carrying out movements
muscles that assist in the action of agonists but are not primarily responsible for the action; known as guiding muscles, they assist in refined movement and rule out undesired motions.
muscles that counteract or neutralize the action of other muscles to prevent undesirable movements; referred to as neutralizing, they contract to resist specific actions of other muscles
occur when two or more forces are pulling in different directions on an object, causing the object to rotate about its axis
muscle develops tension as it shortens and occurs when it has enough force to overcome resistance.
muscle lengthening under tension and occurs when muscle gradually lessens in tension to control the descent of resistance
tension is developed within a muscle, but the joint angles remain constant
as the length of the muscle increases, the amount of active tension that can be developed increases until about 130% of the muscle's resting length is reached. After 130% the increase in length results in decreased active tension, but passive tension begins to increase (relationship between sarcomere length and force produced).
a muscle stretched beyond its normal resting length
dependent on the number of motor units and their respective muscle fibers recruited in a given contraction. Length of the muscle during the contraction factors in the amount of this that the muscle produces.
Concentric force velocity relationship
as velocity (speed) increases, the amount of force decrease due to low resistance
eccentric force velocity relationship
as velocity (speed) decreases, the amount of force increases due to high resistance
can be defined as an active stretch (eccentric stretch) of a muscle followed by an immediate shortening (concentric stretch) of that same muscle. Its influence on the reflex activation becomes apparent and very different from the isolated forms of muscle actions mentioned above.
subconscious mechanism by which the body is able to regulate posture and movement by responding to stimuli originating in the joints, tendons, muscle, and inner ear.
primarily in muscle belly between fibers, are sensitive to stretch and rate of stretch. tells muscle to contract
golgi tendon organ
located in the tendon close to the muscle-tendon junction, are continuously sensitive to both muscle tension and active contraction. tells the muscle to relax. protects from an excessive contraction
involves a shortening contraction (concentric) of the opposing muscle to place the target muscle on stretch, this is followed by an isometric contraction of the target muscle. Enhances both active and passive ROM.
muscle becomes shortened to the point at which it cannot generate or maintain active tension
opposing muscle becomes stretched to the point at which it can no longer lengthen or allow movement
henneman's size principle
states in order to move a load, motor units are recruited from smallest to largest
antagonist muscle groups must relax and lengthen when the agonist muscle group contracts. this reduction allows them to subsequently lengthen under less tension.
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