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29 terms

GI disorders

terms associated with GI disorders
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ascites
the accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that results from venous congestion of the hepatic capillaries, which leads to plasma leaking directly from the liver surface and portal vein
asterixis
a course tremor characterized by rapid, nonrhythmic extensions and flexions in the wrist and fingers; also termed liver flap
billroth 1
partial gastrectomy with the remaining segment being anastomosed to the duodenum; also termed gastoduodenostomy
billroth 2
partial gastrectomy with the remaining segment being anastomosed to the jejunum; also termed gastrojejunostomy
anastomosis
surgical connection between two structures
cholecystectomy
removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis
an inflammation of the gallbladder that may occur as an acute or chronic process. Acute inflammation is associated with gallstones. Chronic condition of this results when inefficient bile emptying and gallbladder muscle wall disease causes a fibrotic and contracted gallbladder.
cholelithiasis
another term for acute gallbladder inflammation
choledocholithotomy
incision into the common bile duct to remove a gallstone
cirrhosis
a chronic progressive disease of the liver characterized by diffuse degeneration and destruction of hepatocytes. Repeated destruction of hepatic cells causes the formation of scar tissue.
crohn's disease
an inflammatory disease that can occur anywhere in the GI tract but most often affects the terminal ileum; leads to thickening and scarring, narrow lumen, fistulas, ulcerations, and abscesses. The disease is characterized by remissions and exacerbations.
cullen's sign
bluish discoloration of the abdomen and periumbilical area seen in acute hemorrhagic pancreaitis
diverticulitis
inflammation of one or more diverticula from penetration of fecal matter through the thin-walled diverticulum can progress to intraabdominal perforation with generalized peritonitis
dumping syndrome
rapid emptying of the gastric contents into the small intestine, which occurs following gastric resection
diverticulosis
outpouching or herniations of the intestinal mucosa that can occur in any part of the intestine but most common in the sigmoid colon
esophageal varices
dilated and tortuous veins in the submucosa of the esophagus caused by portal hypertension, often associated with liver cirrhosis; at high risk for rupture if portal circulation pressure rises
fetor hepaticus
fruity, musty breath odor associated with severe chronic liver disease
gastrectomy
removal of the stomach with attachment of the esophagus to the jejunum or duodenum; also termed esophagojejunostomy or esophagodu
gastric resection
removal of the lower half of the stomach, usually including a vagotomy; also termed antrectomy
hiatal hernia
a portion of the stomach that herniates through the diaphragm and into the thorax. Herniation results from weakening of the muscles of the diaphragm and is aggravated by factors that increase abdominal pressure, such as pregnancy, ascites, obesity, tumors, and heavy lifting; also termed esophageal or diaphragmatic hernia
kock ileostomy
an intraabdominal pouch constructed from the terminal ileum. The pouch is connected to the stoma with a nipple like valve constructed from a portion of the ileum. The stoma is flush with the skin
murphy's sign
a sign of gallbladder disease consisting of pain on taking a deep breath when the examiner's fingers are on the approximate location of the gallbladder
pancreatitis
an acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas
peristalsis
wave like rhythmic contractions that propel material through the gastrointestinal tract
portal hypertension
a persistent increase in pressure within the portal vein that develops as a result of obstruction to flow
pyloroplasty
enlarging the pylorus to prevent or decrease pyloric obstruction, thereby enhancing gastric emptying
turner's sign
a gray blue discoloration of the flanks seen in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis
ulcerative colitis
inflammatory disease of the bowel that results in poor absorption of nutrients. Acute results in vascular congestion, hemorrhage, edema, and ulceration of the bowel mucosa. Chronic causes muscular hypertorphy, fat deposits, and fibrous tissue with bowel thickening, shortening, and narrowing
vagotomy
surgical division of the vagus nerve to eliminate the vagal impulses that stimulate hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach