Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Physiology Exam #3
Terms in this set (111)
Which region of the brain is the single most important region involved in maintaining homeostasis?
Which portion of the pituitary gland is neural tissue, and is an extension of the brain?
The Posterior Pituitary Gland
(extension of the Hypothalamus)
Which portion of the pituitary gland is glandular tissues, and is NOT an extension of the brain?
The Anterior Pituitary Gland
(Master Gland of the Body)
How many different kinds of endocrine cells are present in the anterior pituitary gland?
6 different kinds
The endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary gland secrete six (6) different hormones. What are they?
- Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Leuteinizing Hormone (LH)
- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- Thyroid-Stimulation Hormone (TSH)
- Growth Hormone
Which of the anterior pituitary hormones is NOT a tropic hormone?
What is a hypophysiotropic hormone? What do they do?
They trigger the sectretion of anterior pituitary hormones
Physiological parameters regulated by the hypothalamus
Water balance (Osmolarity)
Food intake (Appetite regulation)
Where are the Supraoptic Nucleus and the Paraventricular Nucleus located? Where are the axon terminals of their neurons located?
Within the hypothalamus
Compose the Posterior Pituitary
What is a neuroendocrine cell, and what does it secrete? Is it the same thing as a neurosecretory neuron?
They are the same thing and they secrete Oxytocin and ADH
Name the two (2) hormones secreted by the Posterior Pituitary gland.
Antidihiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Name the neurohormone that triggers uterine contractions during labor, and also triggers milk ejection from the breast.
Name the neurohormone that increases water reabsorption by the kidneys, and also causes vasoconstriction of arterioles.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
What do osmosensory neurons detect?
changes in blood chemistry
inhibits the secretion of GH
What is the function of the Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal (aka Hypothalamo-pituitary) Portal Vessel System?
A link that delivers tropic hormones from the hypothalamus to the Anterior Pituitary through blood
What is a NEUROHEMAL ORGAN?
an organ that secretes substances into the blood
Define negative-feedback loops
control the secretion of hypophysiotropic hormones
What is the range of normal fasting blood plasma [glucose] in non-diabetic people?
65 - 105 mg/dl
What are the cut-off [glucose] for hypoglycemia & hyperglycemia?
Hyper - glucose greater than 105
Hypo - glucose less than 65
What is reactive hypoglycemia?
excessive insulin secretion after eating hihgly-glycemic foods
How did ancient physicians (before chemical assays were developed) determine whether a patient had diabetes mellitus (DM)?
tasting the patient's urine
What is the mechanism that causes people with diabetes mellitus to exhibit polyuria?
abnormal presence of glucose in the urine
How is diabetes mellitus diagnosed? How high does fasting plasma [glucose] need to be?
having a fasting plasma equal to or greater than 125 mg/dl on 2 seperate occasions
What does the word "nascent" refer to?
forming urine in the kidney tubules
Which type of diabetes mellitus is due to insufficient insulin secretion?
Why is insulin secretion insufficient in one type of DM?
loss of pancreatic beta cells due to auto-immune attack
Does type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) have a genetic component? What is the evidence for that?
Yes, its associated with genes for MHC
Why is the incidence of DM1 increasing by ~5% annually in the USA?
Environmental factors are playing a role
What is "Insulin-Resistance"?
Type 2 Diabetes
What happens to pancreatic beta cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)?
they die (apoptosis)
Why is chronic, long-term hyperglycemia bad for health? What body structures become damaged?
Cause Cardiovascular Disease
Chronic Kidney Disease
What condition can trigger chronic kidney disease?
What condition can cause retinopathy?
What is responsible for neuropathic pain?
Approximately how many living people (worldwide) had diabetes in 2015?
Roughly what percentage of Americans had diabetes in 2014?
Is gestational diabetes a form of DM1 or DM2?
What are the risk factors for developing DM2?
Lack of excercise
Hibituary drinking sugary drinks
What is diabesity?
Type 2 Diabetes cause by obesity
Insulin-resistance is believed to be caused by being ______________ and by lack of ______________ ________________.
What are the five (5) ADIPOKINES, and how do they affect insulin-resistance?
- Leptin (promotes insulin-resistance)
- Resistin (promotes insulsin-resistence)
- Retinol-binding protein 4 (promotes insulin-resistance)
- Tumor Necrosis Factor (promotes insulin-resistance)
- Adipnectin (reduces insulin-resistance)
DM2 is reversible with what?
Metabolic Syndrome is a constellation of symptoms involving five things. What are they?
Dyslipidemia (increased free fatty acids & decreased HDL cholesterol)
Inflammation in fat
What are cytokines?
hormones of immune cells
Which type of immune system cells (a white blood cell) invades adipose tissue and secretes pro-inflammatory cytokines?
How can a person increase their concentration of adiponectin?
What causes neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI)?
insufficient secretion of ADH
What causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI)?
failure of the kidneys to respond appropriately to ADH
What fluid is secreted by the exocrine pancreas?
What fluid is stored in the Gallbladder?
Which duct fuses with the pancreatic duct before they enter the duodenum?
What is the main role of bile in digesting fats within the small intestine?
emulsify ingested fats within the lumen of the small intsetine
Why do pancreatic acini secrete a bicarbonate-rich fluid (what is the role of those bicarbonate ions)?
increases pH of the highly acidic gastric juices arriving from the stomach
What is a zymogen?
an inactive form of an enzyme
What kinds of molecules, obtained from ingested food, can be digested by enzymes secreted by the pancreas?
Where is enterokinase located? How is it related to trypsin?
within intestinal microvili
it converts trypsinogen into trypsin
The clusters of endocrine cells within the pancreas are known as
Alpha cells secrete
Beta cells secrete
Insulin & amylin
Gamma cells secrete
Delta cells secrete
Epsilon cells secrete
Insulin does what with glucose?
causes glucose uptake (from the ISF) into some cell types
Glucagon does what with glucose?
enables liver cells to release glucose into the ISF
What hormone makes you feel full after eating? (Increases satiety)
Somatostatin is thought as what within Islets
is thought to act as a paracrine factor within Islets
Ghrelin enables cells to obtain?
glucose from the ISF
Grehlin does what to your brain?
makes you feel hungry
What are GLUTs?
membrane uniporters that allow glucose to passively diffuse down its concentration gradient into cells
Which isoform of GLUT is affected by insulin?
Which cell type expresses GLUT1 constitutively in its plasma membrane (PM)?
blood-brain barrier glial cells
Which cell type expresses GLUT2 constitutively in its plasma membrane (PM)?
pancreatic beta cells
Which cell type expresses GLUT3 constitutively in its plasma membrane (PM)?
How does contraction of skeletal muscles during physical activity (i.e., exercise) affect GLUT4? Does this depend on insulin?
triggers insertion of GLUT4 into the plasma membrane
independent of insulin
Where is GLUT4 stored when it it not in the plasma membrane?
Approximately how many different intracellular events occur between the binding of insulin to its receptor, and the insertion of GLUT4 into the PM?
Which tissue(s) express glucose-6-phosphatase? What does this enzyme do? How is it related to the release of glucose from the cytosol into the ISF?
- Lowers concentration of glucose
Which cells compose the blood-brain barrier?
Astrocytes (between capillaries and neurons)
Can the brain take-up glucose from the ISF in the absence of insulin?
Functions of the heart
What is the endocardium?
What is the Myocardium?
What is the Epicardium?
Properties of Contractile Cells?
Properties of Pacemaker cells?
Properties of Conductile Cells?
Properties of Endocrine Cells?
What is Endocrinology?
the study of hormones
Which type of signaling (endocrine or nervous) tends to be slower & longer-lasting?
Endocrine signaling by hormones tends to be slower and produce long lasting effects
Why do exocrine glands have ducts?
to reach the epithelium surface
Into which body fluid compartment is a hormone initially secreted?
from the blood plasma into the Interstitial Fluid
How many different types of endocrine cell are present with pancreatic Islets of Langerhans?
5 different types
In paracrine signaling, where are the receptor proteins located in relation to the signaling cell?
on a different target cell
What does a cell need in order to be a target cell for a particular hormone?
It must have a receptor protein specific to a certain hormone
What is the difference between a hormone, and a neurohormone?
Neurohormones are hormones secreted by a neuron onto a fenestrated capillary.
Why is the insulin receptor called a "receptor tyrosine kinase"?
after being activated, the intracellular portion of the receptor protein functions as a kinase enzyme that chemically attaches phosphate groups to tyrosine residues within proteins.
How many different hormones are secreted by pancreatic Islets of Langerhans, and by the Anterior Pituitary gland?
6 different hormones each
Name three (3) endocrine tissues or organs that have other, non-endocrine function(s).
What does a TROPIC hormone do?
triggers the secretion of another hormone
What type of molecule is the hormone insulin?
a water soluble peptide hormone
Name one of the steroid hormones. Are they water-soluble all by themselves?
Estrogen, Testosterone, Aldosterone are all lipid soluble
Which molecule (often found in some foods) is used by endocrine cells to synthesize steroid hormones?
Which type of molecule (present within the plasma membrane) is used to synthesize eicosanoids?
At what range of concentrations (within the ISF) are most hormones effective?
10^-8 - 10^-12 Molar
What is the relationship between hormones, and intracellular signaling events?
hormones produce their effects by activating intracellular signalling events
Where does gas exchange #1 by diffusion occur?
the movement (by diffusion) of O2 & CO2 between alveolar air & and blood
Where does gas exchange #2 by diffusion occur?
the movement (by diffusion) of O2 & CO2 between blood & tissues of body
What is internal (i.e., cellular) respiration?
The metabolic consumption of O2 within mitochondria
Why is it important that this surface area of the lung large? What is the area?
75 meters ^2
What is ventilation?
the tidal movement of air (by bulk flow) into & out of lungs
Sets found in the same folder
Physiology Exam 2
Sets with similar terms
BILD 2 CHAPTER 45
BILD 2 CHAPTER 45
Ch 13 Endocrine System
Anatomy & Physiology II
Other sets by this creator
CS 1410 Final
Abnormal Psych Study Final
Physical Therapy Final
Dynamic Fitness Final