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Terms in this set (29)
has both a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic region
channel proteins that facilitate the passage of water molecules through the membrane in certain cells
transport proteins that hold onto their passengers and change shape in a way that shuttles them across the membrane
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cells of plants.
A structure in the centrosome of an animal cell composed of a cylinder of microtubule triplets in "9 + 0". A centrosome has a pair of centrioles.
function by having a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel through the membrane
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorb sunlight and use it to drive synthesis of organic compounds by carbon dioxide.
the contents of the cell bounded by the plasma membrane
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical, transport, and signaling functions.
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded(rough) and ribosome-free(smooth) regions
Collects, modifies, and packages proteins and lipids made by the E.R
Contains digestive enzymes to breakdown food and wastes. Involved in apoptosis
A thin layer of tissue covering a surface or lining a cavity, space or organ
Converts glucose into ATP (energy a cell can use) in the process of cellular respiration. The powerhouse of the cell.
Surrounds the nucleolus and DNA. Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids acts as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, regulating the cell's chemical composition
bacteria and archaea; the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane- enclosed, called the nucleoid
tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes
Contains most of the cells ribosomes which synthesize proteins
Synthesizes lipids for use in the cell membrane and other parts of the cell
most of the DNA is in an organelle called the nucleus
motility structure present in some animal cells, composed of a cluster of microtubules within an extension of the plasma membrane
fluid mosaic model
The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids
contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cells
"Little organs" that make up the cell working together for the survival and function of the cell
surface area:volume ratio
as a cell increases in size, its surface area grows proportionately less than its volume
a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached. Many function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane.
Storage vesicle for water, food, wastes other substances. 1 large vacuole in plants, many small vacuoles in animals.
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