Physics Ch. 17

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Terms in this set (...)

positive and negative
There are two types of electric charges - _______________ and ______________
repel and attract
Like charges __________, and unlike charges __________
atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons
All matter is made up of _________, which consist of positively charged particles called ______________,neutral particles called ______________ and negatively charged particles called
cancel, no
When there are an equal number of protons (+) and electrons (-), the charges ________ and the atom has ____ net charge
transferred
Protons and neutrons are relatively fixed in the nucleus, but electrons are easily ________________ from one atom to another
ions
Transferring an electron from one neutral atom to another creates two _________
negative
The atom that gains an electron attains a ___________ charge
positive
The atom that loses an electron attains a ___________ charge
equals
Since electric charge is created by the transfer of electrons from one object to another, the magnitude of the positive charge of one object ______________ the magnitude of the negative charge on the second object
created or destroyed
No charge is ____________ nor ______________
multiple
When an object is charged, its charge is always a ______________ of a fundamental unit of charge, symbolized by the letter e
-
The electron has the charge of ____e
+
The proton has the charge of _____e
-1.60 x 10^-19
What is the charge of an electron?
+1.60 x 10^-19
What is the charge of a proton?
0
What is the charge of a neutron?
conductor
________________ is material that transfers charge easily
copper, most metals
Examples of conductors are:
insulator
_________________ is material that does not transfer charge easily
rubber, wood, leather
Examples of insulators are:
semi-conductor
___________________ are insulators in their pure state, but can become conductors through the carefully controlled addition of specific atoms
silicone
An example of a semi-conductor is ___________.
super conductor
___________________ become perfect conductors when they are at or below a certain temperature
contract
Insulators and conductors can be charged by ___________
rubbing a balloon against your hair, rubbing an insulated copper rod with wool or fur
Examples of contact are:
induction
Conductors can be charged by _________
polarization
A surface charge can be induced on insulators by ________________
induction
the process of charging a conductor by bringing it near another charged object and grounding the conductor
grounded
When a conductor is connected to the earth, which is an infinite reservoir for electrons, it is said to be _____________
polarization
This rearrangement of charges is called ____________
attract or repel
There is no net charge on the polarized object, but the object is able to__________ or _________ due to this realignment of charges
towards, away from
Two charged objects near one another may experience motion ___________ one another or ____________ one another
electric field
This force exerted by one charged object on another charged object is called _______________
attract
Opposite charges __________
repel
Similar charges _________
the amount of charge of the individual objects, the distance between the objects
The amount of electric force is determined by (2):
less
The farther away two charged objects are from one another, the __________ the attractive or repulsive force is between the objects
greater
The greater the individual charges are, the _________ the attractive or repulsive force is between the objects
vector
This force is a __________ quantity that acts along the line between the two objects
8.99 × 10 9N•m^2 /C^2
kC is Coulomb's constant and has a value of _______________
point charges and spherical distributions
Coulomb's law applies to ____________ and ______________ of charges
field
Electric force is a ___________ force
contact
No ____________ is needed between the two objects
Gravitational force
_________________ is the other field force that we learned about
inverse square law
Gravitational force and electric force both follow the ________________
positive or negative, positive
Electric force can be ____________ or ____________ depending on the sign of the charges, whereas gravitational is always ________
Electric force
_____________ is significantly stronger
electrostatic equilibrium
Objects at rest are said to be at _____________
zero
In electrostatic situations, the equilibrium position of a charge is the location at which the net electric force on the charge is _____
equal and opposite
The force between the equilibrium charge and the first charge needs to be __________ and _________ to the force between the equilibrium charge and the second charge
torsion balance
A ________________ consists of two small spheres fixed to the ends of a light horizontal rod, which is made of an insulating material and suspended with silk thread
charge
One of the spheres is given a _________ and another charged object is brought near the sphere
rotate
The attractive or repulsive force between the two charged objects causes the rod to _________
quantitative measure
Measuring the angle through with the rod rotates allows for a _______________ of the electric force
electric field
A charged particle sets up an __________________ in the space around it
interacts
When a second charged particle (a small test charge) enters this field, electric forces arise, in other words, the second object ___________ with the field of the first object
electric field
a region in space around a charged object in which a stationary charged object experiences an electric force because of its charge
Electric field strength
___________________, E, is a ratio of force to charge
vector
E is a __________ quantity with direction depending on the charge producing the field
Newtons per Coulombs
The SI units are ______________
rearrangement
A strong test charge will cause a _______________ of the charges on the sphere
the electric field of the larger sphere, the electric force exerted on the test charge
This rearrangement of charges changes:
do not
Electric field lines _______ actually exist, but can be a convenient aid for visualizing electric field patterns
electric field lines
lines that represent both the magnitude (or strength) and the direction of the electric field
increases
As charge increases, the number of lines ___________
direction
Arrow heads indicate the ______________ of the field
away, toward
Lines point ______________ positive charges and ________________negative charges
positive, negative
The lines must begin on _________ charges or at infinity and must terminate on _________ charges or at infinity.
magnitude
The number of lines drawn leaving a positive charge or approaching a negative charge is proportional to the _____________ of the charge
cross
No two field lines from the same field can __________ each other
the same, opposite
Two point charges of _________ magnitude but _____________ sign
equal
The number of lines that begin at the positive charge must ___________ the number of lines that terminate on the negative charge
number
The same ____________ of lines emerge from each charge because the charges are equal in magnitude
equals, twice
At great distances from the charges, the field approximately __________that of a single point charge with __________ the magnitude
twice
The positive point charge, +2q, has ________ the magnitude of the negative point charge, -q
twice
The number of lines leaving the positive charge is _________ the number terminating on the negative charge
single point charge
At great distances from the charges, the field lines appear to come from a _________________, +q
free
Good electric conductors contain electrons that are not bound to any atom and are _______ to move throughout the material
net movement
When there is no ______________ of charge, the conductor is said to be at electrostatic equilibrium
zero
The electric field is _______ everywhere inside the conductor
outer
Any excess charge on an isolated conductor resides entirely on the conductor's ___________ surface
perpendicular
The electric field just outside a charged conductor is __________ to the conductor's surface
smallest
On an irregularly shaped conductor, charge tends to accumulate where the radius of the surface is __________, that is, at sharp points.
positive or negative
Van de Graaff generators are used to generate charge, which can be ___________ or ___________ depending upon the design