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Micro Ch.5 Microbial Metabolism

MCB2004 Oriorden Spring 2013 Microbiology with Diseases by Body System 3rd Ed. Robert W. Bauman
STUDY
PLAY
What is the clinical term for double vision?
diplopia
-The collection of controlled biochemical reactions that takes place within the microbe.
microbial metabolism
Microbial metabolism- the collection _______________ biochemal reactions that takes place within the microbe.
controlled
Microbial metabolism-the collection of controlled biochemical reactions that takesplace within the __________.
microbe
What is the ultimate function of an organisms metabolism?
To reproduce the organism
Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 1: Every cells acquires _____________, which are the chemicals necessary for metabolism.
nutrients
Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 1: Every cells acquires nutrients, which are the ____________ necessary for metabolism.
chemicals
According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, every cell acquires what chemicals, that are necessary for metabolism?
nutrients
Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 2: Metabolism requires energy from what two things?
light; or from the catabolism (breaking down) of acquired nutrients.
Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 3: Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of _______________ ________________ a.k.a. ATP.
adenosine triphosphate
According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, ______________ is stored in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
energy
According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, using enzymes, cells catabolize nutrient molecules to form elementary building blocks called _________ __________.
precurser metabolites
Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 4: Using nutrients, cells catabolize enzymatic molecules to form elementary building blocks called precurser metabolites. True/False?
False! Using enzymes (not nutrients), cells catabolize nutrient (not enzymatic) molecules to form elementary building blocks called precurser metabolites.
According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, using the building block precurser metabolites, energy from ATP, and other enzymes, cells construct larger building blocks in _____________(______________) reactions.
anabolic (biosynthetic)
Which of the following statements are incorrect in regards to the metabolic processes?
-Cells typically reproduce once they have tripled in size.
-Every cell acquires nutrients , which are the chemicals necessary for metabolism.
-Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of ATP.
Cells typically reproduce once they have doubled (not tripled) in size.
Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 6: Cells use enzymes and additional energy from ATP to anabolically link building blocks together to form macromolecules in __________________ reactions.
polymerization
According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, cells use enzymes and additional energy from ATP to anabolically link building blocks together to form ________________ in polymerization reactions.
macromolecules
Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 7: Cells grow by assembling macromolecules into cellular structures such as ______________, membranes, and cell walls.
ribosomes
According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, Cells typically _____________once they have doubled in size.
reproduce
Organic ______________called enzymes, make metabolism possible.
catalysts
Metabolism can be divided into what two major classes of reactions?
catabolism and anabolism
-all of the chemical in an organism
metabolism
Metabolism, which is all of the chemical reactions in an organism, can be divided into two major classes of reactions: catabolism and anabolism. A series of such reactions is called a _____________.
pathway
Cells have __________pathways which break larger molecules into smaller products (a.k.a. breaking down), and ___________pathways which synthesize large molecule from the smaller products of catabolism. (building up)
catabolic;anabolic
When catabolic pathways break down large molecules they release energy. Therefore catabolic pathways are __________.
exergonic
When catabolic pathways break down large molecules they release energy, cells store some of this released energy energy in the __________of ATP, though much of the energy is lost as ___________.
bonds;heat
Fill in the blanks below, being sure to refer to the exergonic pathways of catabolism. When catabolic pathways break down large molecules, they release energy. ____________store some of this released energy in the bonds of ATP, though ______of the energy is lost as heat. Another result of the breakdown of large molecules by cataboic pathways is the production of numerous smaller molecules, some of which are ______________ ____________ of anabolism.
cells;much;precurser metabolites
-Any of 12 molecules typically generated by metabolic pathway and essential to the synthesis of organic macromolecules in cells.
precurser metabolite
Some organisms such as ____________ __________ can synthesize everything in their cells just from precurser metabolites;other organisms muct acquire some anabolic building blocks from outside their cells as _______________.
Escherichia coli (E. Coli);nutrients
Catabolic pathways, but not necessarily individual catabolic reactions, produce __________,or ___________, or both.
ATP;metabolites
The breakdown of lipids into glycerol and fatty acids is an example of what type of pathway?
catabolic pathway
Anabolic pathways are functionally the opposite of catabolic pathways in that they synthesize ____________ and _________ __________.
macromolecules;cellular structures
Because building anything requires energy, anabolic pathways are __________,that is, they require more energy than they release.
endergonic
Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.
-glycolysis → citric acid cycle → acetyl CoA → electron transport chain
-glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
-acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis
-electron transport chain → citric acid cycle → glycolysis → acetyl CoA
-citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis → acetyl CoA
glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
- Glycolysis produces pyruvic acid, which enters the mitochondrion. There, it is converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle. In bacteria, pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl CoA in the cytoplasm. Electron carriers bring electrons from the first three steps to the electron transport chain, and ATP is made.
What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?
-C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 → 6 O2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
-6 O2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6 CO2
-C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
-6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
-C6H12O6 + 6 H2O → 6 CO2 + 6 O2 + ATP energy
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
Cellular respiration extracts energy from glucose (C6H12O6) to produce smaller energy packets (ATP).
Which of the following processes does not take place in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell?
-The energy investment phase
-glycolysis
-citric acid cycle
-ATP production by ATP synthase
-acetyl CoA formation
ATP production by ATP synthase
In what organelle of a eukaryote would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
-Golgi apparatus
-nucleus
-mitochondrion
-lysosome
-chloroplast
mitochondrion
Which statement describes glycolysis?
-Glycolysis converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
-Glycolysis splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
-Glycolysis joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
-Glycolysis uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
-Glycolysis results in the production of carbon dioxide.
Glycolysis splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of pyruvic acid. The released energy is stored in ATP and the electron carrier NADH.
Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?
-The citric acid cycle converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
-The citric acid cycle produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion of eukaryotes, but takes place in the cytoplasm of bacteria.
-The citric acid cycle uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
-The citric acid cycle splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
-The citric acid cycle joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
...
Which statement describes the electron transport chain?
-Electron transport chain converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
-This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide.
-The electron transport chain splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each molecule of glucose.
-The electron transport chain uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
-The electron transport chain joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
The electron transport chain uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
- In the electron transport chain, electrons move from one electron carrier to another, eventually reaching oxygen. The released energy is used to make many molecules of ATP.
Which of the following equations represents photosynthesis?
-C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
-6CO2 + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6H2O
-6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
-6H2O + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6CO2
-C6H12O6 + 6CO2 → 6O2 + 6H2O
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and water for the production of sugar and oxygen.
In which of the following organelles does photosynthesis take place?
-Ribosome
-Central vacuole
-Mitochondrion
-Nucleus
-Chloroplast
Chloroplast
-Chloroplasts use energy from light to transform carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.
What connects the two photosystems in the light reactions?
-Chlorophyll
-A thylakoid
-An electron transport chain
-The Calvin cycle
-A chain of glucose molecules
An electron transport chain
What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to power the Calvin cycle?
-ATP and NADPH
-C6H12O6 and O2
-G3P and H2O
-C6H12O6 and RuBP
-CO2 and O2
ATP and NADPH
What provides electrons for the light reactions?
-H2O
-CO2
-The Calvin cycle
-O2
-Light
H2O
What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the Calvin cycle?
-G3P (C3H6O3)
-RuBP
-Carbon dioxide (CO2)
-Glucose (C6H12O6)
-Sucrose (C12H22O11)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
What transports electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle?
-NADH
-An electron transport chain
-NADPH
-Chlorophyll
-FADH2
NADPH
The light reactions take place in the _________ and the Calvin cycle takes place in the _________.
-thylakoids; stroma
-mitochondria; chloroplasts
-chloroplasts; mitochondria
-stroma; thylakoids
-inner membrane; outer membrane
thylakoids; stroma
-Within the chloroplast, the light reactions take place in the flattened sacs called thylakoids and the Calvin cycle takes place in the thick fluid called the stroma.
Which of these is NOT true of an enzyme?
-An enzyme is usually a protein.
-The names of most enzymes end in "-ase."
-An enzyme raises the activation energy of a reaction.
-The active site is where the substrate attaches to the enzyme.
An enzyme raises the activation energy of a reaction.
Which of the following molecules serves as the short-term recyclable energy supply for a cell?
-triglycerides
-ATP
-glucose
-phospholipids
ATP
In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is __________.
-glucose
-oxygen
-ATP
-ethanol
oxygen
Catabolic reactions are chemical reactions that __________.
-release molecules of water
-involve carbon
-break large molecules apart
-consume energy
break large molecules apart
Denaturation is most often a problem with which of the following?
-nucleic acids
-proteins
-carbohydrates
-lipids
proteins
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be catabolized by microorganisms?
-lipids
-starch
-CO2
-proteins
CO2
In photosynthetic bacteria, the light-dependent reaction __________.

-involves an electron transport chain
-occurs within the chloroplast
-uses ATP and NADH
-is called the Calvin-Benson cycle
involves an electron transport chain
Which of the following is NOT TRUE of glucose?

-Glucose is a product of aerobic respiration.
-Glucose is a monosaccharide.
-Glucose can be synthesized from amino acids, glycerol, and fatty acids by some bacteria.
-Glucose is a product of the hydrolysis of starch.
Glucose is a product of aerobic respiration
The electron transport chain __________.
-produces less ATP than in glycolysis
-is located in the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria
-is the site of fermentation
-is the location where the Krebs cycle occurs
is located in the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria
Oxidative phosphorylation __________.
-uses energy from a proton motive force to add phosphate to ADP
-occurs in glycolysis
-uses light energy to make ATP
-involves transfer of phosphate from a phosphorylated substrate to ADP
uses energy from a proton motive force to add phosphate to ADP
A molecule that gains an electron from another molecule will experience ____________________ in its overall electrical charge, and becomes ________. .
-a reduction, reduced
-an increase, oxidized
-a reduction, oxidized
-an increase, reduced
a reduction, reduced
Hydrolysis reactions __________.
-involve removal of hydrogen from a molecule
-release water
-are used to synthesize compounds
-are catabolic
are catabolic
Deamination is __________.
-the process that bacteria use to break down proteins into amino acids
-the process used to synthesize amino acids
-the removal of an amine group from an amino acid
-a type of anabolism
the removal of an amine group from an amino acid
Glycolysis __________.
-transfers electrons from a substrate to NAD+
-yields less ATP than it uses
-uses water to break glucose into two 3-carbon molecules
-occurs in the cytoplasm of bacteria and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells
transfers electrons from a substrate to NAD+
All bacteria __________.
-possess the same metabolic enzymes
-require energy in order to survive
-carry out aerobic respiration
-All of the above are correct.
require energy in order to survive
Beta-oxidation __________.
-is a process bacteria can use to break down proteins
-is the name given to the process that occurs in the electron transport chain
-is the process used by bacteria to catabolize amino acids
-is the process used by many bacteria to catabolize fatty acids
is the process used by many bacteria to catabolize fatty acids
All of these statements are correct descriptions of bacterial metabolism EXCEPT __________.
-if two energy sources are available, cells catabolize the more energy efficient of the two
-feedback inhibition can be used to stop anabolic pathways when the product is in abundance
-metabolic processes can be isolated within certain parts of the cell, such as lysosomes
-cells often synthesize enzymes for a particular catabolic process only if the substrate for that process is available
metabolic processes can be isolated within certain parts of the cell, such as lysosomes
Which of these is NOT a product of photosynthesis in bacteria?
-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
-O2
-CO2
-glucose
CO2
The site of photosynthesis within a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell is the __________.
-chloroplast
-nucleus
-mitochondrion
-cytoplasm
chloroplast
The Calvin-Benson cycle __________.
-produces NADH for use in the electron transport chain
-produces CO2, glucose, and ATP
-utilizes NADH and ATP as energy sources
-occurs in the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria
occurs in the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria
Redox reactions ___________________________.
-involve the passing of electrons from one molecule to another.
-are involved only in the electron transport chain.
-involve both of the above.
-involve neither of the above.
involve the passing of electrons from one molecule to another.
When a molecule is reduced, ___________________.
-it has lost an electron.
-it has become smaller.
-its electrical charge has been reduced by the addition of an electron.
-it is called the electron donor.
its electrical charge has been reduced by the addition of an electron.
Why are redox reactions considered coupled reactions?
-Because they involve both the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, redox reactions are said to be coupled.
-Electrons are always passed in pairs.
-Because they affect both the charge and the structure of molecules, redox reactions are said to be coupled.
-If an electron is transferred between molecules, one molecule is oxidized while the other molecule is reduced.
If an electron is transferred between molecules, one molecule is oxidized while the other molecule is reduced.
What is the term given for the energy required to convert reactants into products in a chemical reaction?
-chemical potential energy
-enzymes
-energy of activation
-electron configuration
energy of activation
Enzymes are ____________________. (can select more than one answer)
-biological catalysts.
-present in living cells.
-increases the energy of activation.
-all of the above
present in living cells.
biological catalysts
Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is false?
-Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions.
-Enzymes increase the total amount of product in a chemical reaction.
-The transition of reactants to products requires a certain amount of energy.
-Make it easier for cells to produce the products of various chemical reactions in the cell.
Enzymes increase the total amount of product in a chemical reaction.
Which of the following statements is the basis of the induced-fit model?
-Products dissociate rapidly from the enzyme.
-Each enzyme can react with many different substrates.
-Enzymes are left unchanged following the interaction with their substrates.
-The enzyme and substrate bind at the active site to form a perfect fit known as the enzyme-substrate complex
The enzyme and substrate bind at the active site to form a perfect fit known as the enzyme-substrate complex.
Which of the following may happen after a substrate binds at the active site?
-The enzyme may slow down the chemical reaction, decreasing the time needed for the reactants to produce the products.
-The enzyme may convert the substrate to reactants.
-The enzyme may change shape and the amino acids found in the active site may donate or receive electrons.
The enzyme may change shape and the amino acids found in the active site may donate or receive electrons.
The active site ____________________.
-is another term for "substrate."
-is where the reactants bind.
-is the term for an enzyme that has returned to its original state after a chemical reaction.
-is the compound that an enzyme reacts with during the chemical reaction.
is where the reactants bind.
Put the following enzyme reaction steps in order: 1.Binding of substrate to the active site
2.Dissociation
3.Product formation
4.Enzyme recovery
5.Formation of the enzyme-substrate complex
1, 5, 3, 2, 4
A competitive inhibitor _______________________.
-gives products the same as the intended substrate.
-speeds up catalysis of the original substrate.
-binds to the substrate.
-binds to the active site.
binds to the active site.
The term "competitive" in competitive inhibitors refers to what?
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for reactants.
-The inhibitor is competing with the substrate for the production to see which makes the most products.
-The inhibitor is competing with the enzyme for the substrate.
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme
The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme.
What is the outcome if the concentration of the substrate is much higher than that of the inhibitor?
-The reaction will be carried out as usual.
-The substrate will destroy the inhibitor.
-The enzyme will stop functioning.
-The reaction will slow down catalysis of the products.
The reaction will be carried out as usual.
What would happen if the concentration of substrate is low?
-The inhibitor will destroy the substrate.
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, speeding up catalysis.
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.
-The inhibitor will destroy the enzymes.
The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.
What is relevant about sulfanilamide and PABA? (one or both answers may be correct)
-They have a similar chemical structure.
-They will bind to the same active site.
They have a similar chemical structure and they will bind to the same active site.
The term "competitive" in competitive inhibitors refers to what?
-The inhibitor is competing with the substrate for the production to see which makes the most products.
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for reactants.
-The inhibitor is competing with the enzyme for the substrate.
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme
The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme.
What is the outcome if the concentration of the substrate is much higher than that of the inhibitor?
-The substrate will destroy the inhibitor.
-The enzyme will stop functioning.
-The reaction will slow down catalysis of the products.
-The reaction will be carried out as usual.
The reaction will be carried out as usual.
What would happen if the concentration of substrate is low?
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, speeding up catalysis.
-The inhibitor will destroy the substrate.
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.
-The inhibitor will destroy the enzymes.
The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding the HIV medication nevirapine?
-Nevirapine is the substrate of reverse transcriptase.
-Nevirapine binds to a location other than the active site.
-Nevirapine binds to the active site of reverse transcriptase.
-Nevirapine binds to the substrate of reverse transcriptase.
Nevirapine binds to a location other than the active site.
How can a noncompetitive inhibitor affect enzyme activity without binding to the active site?
-It alters the shape of the substrate, making it difficult for it to bind to the active site.
-It physically blocks the entrance to the active site.
-It binds to another location on the enzyme, altering the active site shape.
-It degrades the substrate.
It binds to another location on the enzyme, altering the active site shape.
How does concentration of the substrate affect the ability of a noncompetitive inhibitor to disrupt enzyme activity?
-High concentrations of substrate can overcome the presence of low amounts of inhibitor.
-Low concentrations of substrate can overcome the presence of low amounts of inhibitor.
-The presence of substrate in either high or low concentrations will overcome low amounts of inhibitor.
-Substrate concentration has no effect on the inhibitor, since they are not competing for the active site.
Substrate concentration has no effect on the inhibitor, since they are not competing for the active site.
Embden-Meyerhof pathway ______________. (can be more than one answer)
-is another name for glycolysis.
-is another name for the preparatory stage.
-is named after its discoverers.
-is another name for the energy-conservation stage.
is another name for glycolysis.

is named after its discoverers
Why is ATP used in the preparatory stage?
-It is needed to produce water from the energy-conserving stage.
-It is needed to reduce NAD+ to NADH.
-It makes the process of converting glucose into two 3-carbon molecules easier.
-ATP is needed to allow the cell to move toward a carbon source.
It makes the process of converting glucose into two 3-carbon molecules easier.
Which of the following are products of glycolysis? (possibly more than one answer)
-ATP
-pyruvic acid
-NADH
-NAD+
-glucose
NADH

pyruvic acid

ATP
Where does the energy come from to make ATP during glycolysis?
-NADH
-glucose
-pyruvic acid
-water
glucose
What is the net ATP produced from one molecule of glucose in glycolysis?
-one molecule
-two molecules
-four molecules
-six molecules
two molecules
Which of the following statements are true regarding the energy-investment stage?
-It can occur only in a cell with ATP to invest.
-Two molecules of ATP are used during this step.
-Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is an intermediate of this stage.
-all of the above
-none of the above
all of the above
What is the fate of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) in glycolysis?
-It is directly involved with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH.
-It is converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.
-It phosphorylates ADP to ATP.
-It is converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
It is converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
The process of moving a phosphate from metabolic products to ADP to form ATP is called __________.
-substrate-level phosphorylation.
-oxidative phosphorylation.
-glycolysis.
-reduction.
substrate-level phosphorylation.
What molecule is fed directly into the energy conservation stage of glycolysis?
-NAD+
-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
-pyruvic acid
-dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
-glucose
-1,3-bisphosphoglycerate acid
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Which of the following are products remaining after glycolysis has occurred for a single molecule of glucose? (possibly more than one answer)
-two NAD+
-two NADH
-four total ATP
-four net ATP
-two molecules of pyruvic acid
two molecules of pyruvic acid

four total ATP

two NADH
Another name for the Krebs cycle is ____________.
-the acetyl CoA cycle.
-the citric acid cycle.
-the transition cycle.
-the bridge cycle.
the citric acid cycle
The overall purpose of the Krebs cycle is ________.
-to convert puryvic acid into acetyl CoA.
-to produce molecules of the energy carrier GTP.
-to produce carbon dioxide and water.
-to extract the energy from pyruvate molecules enzymatically
to extract the energy from pyruvate molecules enzymatically
Which of the following is an electron carrier used in the Krebs cycle? (possibly more than one answer)
-GTP
-NADH
-FADH2
-all of the above
-none of the above
NADH

FADH2
Based on the animation, how many ATP is one NADH equal to?
one
two
three
four
five
three
What occurs at the transition step?
-formation of ATP and NADH
-decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA
-formation of GTP from GDP and inorganic phosphate
-conversion of citric acid to isocitric acid
decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA
Including the transition step, how many carbon dioxide molecules are produced in the Krebs cycle from the 3-carbon compound pyruvic acid?

one
two
three
four
three
Which step of the Krebs cycle involves GTP?
-the third step
-the fourth step
-the seventh step
-the first step
-the fifth step
the fifth step
Which step involves the reduction of FAD+ to FADH?
the third step
the third step
the second step
the fifth step
the sixth step
the sixth step
NADH is converted to ATP in a process known as ___________________.

oxidative phosphorylation
reduction
oxidation
decarboxylation
oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following steps does NOT result in the production of available free energy?
the third step
the eighth step
the fifth step
the seventh step
the fourth step
seventh step
The primary role of electron transport chains in many organisms is to ___________________.
-pump hydrogen ions outside of a membrane.
-transfer electrons along a cell membrane.
-generate usable energy in the form of ATP.
-allow water to flow from regions of high concentrations to low concentrations
generate usable energy in the form of ATP.
Chemiosmosis ____________________________.
-occurs along the cell membrane of eukaryotes.
-is the process of using a proton gradient to generate ATP.
-is the name given to membrane-bound proteins involved in electron transport.
-is the process of using an electron gradient to produce ATP.
is the process of using a proton gradient to generate ATP
How do the protons flow in an electron transport system in a prokaryote?

-from regions of high concentration to low concentrations along a mitochondrial membrane
-from regions of high concentration to low concentrations along a cell membrane
-from regions of low concentration to high concentrations along a cell membrane
-from regions of low concentration to high concentrations along a mitochondrial membrane
from regions of high concentration to low concentrations along a cell membrane
Which compound provides the electrons at the start of the electron transport system in?

NADH
O2
H2O
ATP
NADH
What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of aerobic bacteria?
water
FADH2
oxygen
FMNH2
NADH
oxygen
Small, lipid-soluble, nonprotein electron carriers are ___________.
flavoproteins.
cytochromes.
ATP synthase.
ubiquinones.
ubiquinones
Membrane-bound proteins involved in the electron transport chain that contain a heme group are termed _____________________.
ubiquinones.
ATP synthases.
flavoproteins.
cytochromes.
cytochromes
Which of the following would be a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration?(possibly more than one answer)
sulfate ion
nitrate ion
water
oxygen
ATP
nitrate ion

sulfate ion
Put the following steps of the electron transport system in order, starting with NADH: Electrons to coenzyme Q Electrons to the cytochrome complexes Electrons to flavoprotein Electrons to carbonate ion
3, 2, 1, 4
3, 1, 2, 4
4, 3, 1, 2
1, 2, 3, 4
3, 1, 2, 4
Uncoupling proteins _______________________.

-prevent the ETC from reducing oxygen.
-allow the electron transport system to be used for tasks other than ATP production.
-synthesize ATP.
-pass electrons to the final electron acceptor.
allow the electron transport system to be used for tasks other than ATP production
Cyanide poisoning _______________________.(may be more than one answer)
-allows for ATP production without using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor.
-diverts the energy from the proton gradient to other cell functions.
-acts in a manner similar to oxygen deprivation.
-blocks cytochrome a3.
acts in a manner similar to oxygen deprivation.

blocks cytochrome a3.
What effect does oxygen deprivation have on an aerobic cell?

-keeps cytochrome a3 in the reduced state
-an increase in the amount of heat generated by the ETC
-increases the amount of thermogenin
-makes the cell unable to maintain a proton gradient
makes the cell unable to maintain a proton gradient
Thermogenin _______________________.(may be more than one answer)
-acts in a manner similar to oxygen deprivation.
-is found in certain mammalian fat cells.
-is an example of a protein uncoupler.
-is found in many bacterial cells.
is an example of a protein uncoupler.

is found in certain mammalian fat cells.
What is the primary function of fermentation?
-It is a metabolic pathway used to produce organic acids, like lactic acid.
-It is an alternative way for a cell to produce carbon dioxide.
-It provides the cell with a mechanism to regenerate the oxidized form of electron carriers, allowing glycolysis to continue.
-It enables the electron transport chain to continue functioning in the absence of oxygen.
It provides the cell with a mechanism to regenerate the oxidized form of electron carriers, allowing glycolysis to continue
During fermentation, which compound is the substrate to be reduced with the electrons from NADH?
glucose
pyruvic acid
oxygen
ATP
pyruvic acid
Which of the following is a product of alcohol fermentation?(possibly more than one answer)
carbon dioxide
ethanol
NAD+
#2 and #3
all of the above
all of the above
What is the function of NADH in fermentation?

-NADH provides the electrons to reduce pyruvic acid to either an organic acid or ethanol.
-NADH takes electrons to the electron transport chain.
-NADH is reduced so it can return to glycolysis to pick up more electrons.
-NADH is converted to organic acids like lactic acid.
NADH provides the electrons to reduce pyruvic acid to either an organic acid or ethanol.
Which of the following is NOT an organic acid produced by the process of fermentation?
butyric acid
lactic acid
pyruvic acid
succinic acid
formic acid
pyruvic acid
Chloroplasts found in eukaryotes are likely evolved from ingested ___________________________.

-thylakoids.
-photosynthetic eukaryotes.
-chlorophyll.
-cyanobacteria.
cyanobacteria.
The function of the chlorophyll is _______________.

-to produce ATP by fusing ADP and an inorganic phosphate.
-to harvest the energy from light to power photosynthesis.
-to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
-to provide a barrier that enables a proton gradient to form.
to harvest the energy from light to power photosynthesis
For what is the ATP produced during photosynthesis primarily used?
-to capture energy from sunlight
-to split water
-to pass electrons
-to help make glucose in the Calvin-Benson cycle
to help make glucose in the Calvin-Benson cycle
What does the term "cyclic" refer to in cyclic photophosphorylation?

-the cycle of oxidizing water to make molecular oxygen
-the cyclic motion of ATP synthase
-the return of excited electrons back to photosystem I
-the cycle of ATP production and ATP utilization
the return of excited electrons back to photosystem I
The role of the cytochrome proteins is ___________________________________-To harvest light energy from the sun to energize electrons.
-to pass electrons along the thylakoid membrane, creating a proton gradient.
-to fuse ADP to an inorganic phosphate to yield ATP.
-to split water into hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen.
to pass electrons along the thylakoid membrane, creating a proton gradient.
Where would you find the highest concentration of hydrogen ions?
-in the cytoplasm
-in the thylakoid space
-outside the cell
-in the thylakoid membrane
-in the cytochromes
in the thylakoid space
The source of electrons is ________________________.
-photosystem I.
-carbon dioxide.
-oxygen.
-ATP.
-NADPH.
photosystem I.
Which of the following is not involved in cyclic photophosphorylation?

cytochromes
chlorophyll
NADPH
water
NADPH
Which photosystem does noncyclic photophosphorylation utilize?

photosystem I
photosystem II
both photosystem I and II
neither photosystem I or II
both photosystem I and II
What is the source of electrons in noncyclic photophosphorylation?

photosystem I
oxygen
water
NADPH
ATP
water
What are the products of noncyclic photophosphorylation?
oxygen
ATP
NADPH
all of the above
none of the above
all of the above
Another term for the Calvin Benson Cycle is _____________________________.

the light-independent reactions.
the dark reactions.
both of the above.
neither of the above
both of the above.
What is the end result of the Calvin-Benson cycle?

the production of carbon dioxide
the production of sugars and water
the generation of NADPH
the production of ATP
the production of sugars and water
Most of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules produced in the Calvin Benson cycle __________________________.

-are used in the production of sugar.
-are used to regenerate NADP+.
-are used to regenerate ribulose bisphosphate.
-are broken down to yield ATP.
are used to regenerate ribulose bisphosphate.
How many ATPs are required to produce one molecule of glucose?

9
18
6
36
18
How many cycles of the Calvin-Benson cycle are required to produce 1 molecule of glucose?

1
2
3
6
2
Amino acids from protein degradation can be used directly in which metabolic process(es)?

-glycolysis
-Krebs cycle
-oxidative phosphorylation
-Krebs cycle AND glycolysis
-fermentation
Krebs cycle AND glycolysis
Which macromolecule can be used directly by glycolysis?

lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
carbohydrates
all of the above
none of the above
all of the above
Which of the following processes is considered solely anabolic?

-pentose phosphate pathway
-fermentation
-Krebs cycle
-photosynthesis
-oxidative phosphorylation
photosynthesis
Gluconeogenesis is _________________________.

nvolved in lipid synthesis.

a catabolic pathway.

a process that produces pyruvic acid.

an anabolic pathway
an anabolic pathway.
Which of the following statements regarding cell metabolism is true?

-Water from photosynthesis can be used in oxidative phosphorylation.
-Oxygen produce from photosynthesis can be used in oxidative phosphorylation.
-Photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation have no interaction.
-Carbon dioxide from photosynthesis is used in the Krebs cycle.
Oxygen produce from photosynthesis can be used in oxidative phosphorylation.
__________ is a cellular process that attaches a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate using a high-energy bond.

Catabolism
Metabolism
Beta-oxidation
Phosphorylation
Phosphorylation
Biological oxidations often involve which of the following?

the loss of a hydrogen atom

the gain of an electron

the loss of an oxygen atom

the gain of an oxygen atom
the loss of a hydrogen atom
NAD+, FAD, and NADP+ are all examples of __________.

electron carriers

enzymes

cytochromes

precursor metabolites
electron carriers
Many vitamins are important for metabolism because they act as __________.

ribozymes
holoenzymes
apoenzymes
coenzymes
coenzymes
The activation energy of a chemical reaction __________.

can be achieved by lowering the temperature of a reaction

is the same for all chemical reactions

is eliminated in the presence of an enzyme plus a coenzyme

is lower in the presence of an enzyme
is lower in the presence of an enzyme
Which of the following does NOT affect the activity of an enzyme?

substrate concentration
oxygen concentration
pH
temperature
oxygen concentration
Sulfanilamide is a drug that interferes with bacterial enzymes in which of the following ways?

-end-product inhibition

-feedback inhibition

-noncompetitive inhibition

-competitive inhibition
competitive inhibition
All of the following are associated with the process of glycolysis EXCEPT __________.
-substrate-level phosphorylation
-phosphorylation of glucose
-production of NADPH.
-production of pyruvic acid
production of NADPH
The active site of a chlorophyll molecule is structurally most similar to which of the following?
-folic acid
-RuBP
-thylakoids
-cytochromes
Thylakoids
All of the following processes are ways that a cell can use a proton gradient EXCEPT __________.

-active transport

-flagellar motion

-electron transport

-ATP production
electron transport
What is the major function of fermentation?

It generates a proton gradient.
it regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis.
It produces ADP.
It reduces glucose
It regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis
Microbial fermentation can be detected in laboratory identification schemes by observing a change in __________.


glucose levels

oxygen levels

temperature

pH
pH
Beta-oxidation is a method of catabolizing which of the following molecules?

fatty acids
amino acids
glycerol
glucose
fatty acids
In eukaryotic cells, all of the following processes occur in the mitochondrion EXCEPT __________.

electron transport
glycolysis
beta-oxidation
the Krebs cycle
glycolysis
Which of the following best describes the function of a photosystem?

-It absorbs light energy and converts it to ATP and NADPH.

-It generates a proton gradient in order to produce ATP and NADH.

-It generates glucose from carbon dioxide and water.

-It generates NADH and FADH2 from the oxidation of acetyl-CoA
It absorbs light energy and converts it to ATP and NADPH
The number of ATP molecules produced from the complete aerobic oxidation of one glucose molecule is given as a theoretical number because __________.

-glucose can never be completely oxidized aerobically

-some of the ATP produced by aerobic oxidation diffuses out of the cell before it can be used

-cells use proton gradients for processes other than ATP production

-the process of ATP production is not completely understood on the molecular level
cells use proton gradients for processes other than ATP production
What is the purpose of the Calvin-Benson cycle?

-It produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by fixation of CO2 molecules.

-It forms phosphorylated pentose sugars from glucose-6-phosphate.

-It catabolizes glucose to pyruvic acid using enzymes different from those used in glycolysis.

-It transfers an amine group from one amino acid to another.
It produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by fixation of CO2 molecules.
Which of the following enzymes might be expected to catalyze the addition or removal of electrons associated with other molecules?
-a transferase
-a ligase
-an oxidoreductase
-an isomerase
an oxidoreductase
RuBP is an important part of which of the following pathways?
-chemiosmosis in cellular respiration
-the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
-the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
-the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration
the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
Folic acid is a precursor molecule necessary for the synthesis of which of the following?
nucleotides
cholesterol
amino acids
glycerol
nucleotides
ATP is made by substrate-level phosphorylation only during glycolysis.


True
False
false
A holoenzyme is a combination of an apoenzyme bound to its particular cofactor.
True
False
true
High temperatures break the covalent bonds that give enzymes their characteristic shapes, thereby denaturing them.
True
False
false
Enzymatic reactions reach a saturation point when the active sites of all enzymes present are occupied by substrate molecules.

True
False
true
In feedback inhibition pathways, the end-product of the pathway is usually an inhibitor of the last enzyme in the pathway.

True
False
false
Fermentation results in the production of carbon dioxide and water from pyruvic acid.

True
False
false
During cellular respiration, carbon dioxide is produced only as a by-product of acetyl-CoA synthesis and the Krebs cycle.
True
False
true
The first compound formed in the Krebs cycle is oxaloacetic acid.
True
False
false
The carrier molecules in electron transport chains are all integral membrane proteins.
True
False
false
Chloroplast structure features thylakoids arranged in stacks called stroma.
True
False
false
Which of the following is NOT a possible form of regulation of metabolism in bacteria?
-cells that use inhibitory and excitatory allosteric sites on enzymes to control activity
-feedback inhibition that slows or stops the anabolic pathway when the product is abundant
-synthesis of enzymes for the catabolism of substrate when the substrate is present
-isolating enzymes within membrane-bound regions, such as lysosomes
isolating enzymes within membrane-bound regions, such as lysosomes
Bacteria use the process of amination when synthesizing amino acids.
True
False
true
Bacteria can synthesize glycerol by reversing which pathway?

-beta-oxidation
-glycolysis
-Krebs cycle
-gluconeogenesis
glycolysis
An amphibolic reaction is one that is irreversible.
True
False
false
Which of these statements is NOT true of the electron transport chain?

-In bacteria, the electron transport chain is located on the cytoplasmic membrane.

-In aerobic organisms, oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.

-The electron transport chain in eukaryotes is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane.

-The electron transport chain creates a proton motive force that drives ATP synthesis.
The electron transport chain in eukaryotes is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane.
The Calvin-Benson cycle would be considered to be primarily anabolic.
True
False
true
Which process is INCORRECTLY matched with its location in bacteria?

-fermentation: cytoplasm
-beta-oxidation: mitochondria
-Krebs cycle: cytoplasm
-glycolysis: cytoplasm
beta-oxidation: mitochondria
Bacterial proteases typically do their work outside the cytoplasmic membrane.
True
False
true
Which of the following is NOT a possible product of fermentation?

-acetone and alcohol
-2,3-butanediol
-lactic acid
-NADH
NADH
Some bacteria use electrons carried by NADH to generate light instead of ATP.
True
False
true
- is a genus that switches the flow of electrons from NADH to a system that generates light.
Photobacterium
acetone and alcohol are produced by ___________ during fermentation.
Clostridium
___________ are usually secreted outside the cytoplasmic membrane to break down proteins, which are too large to enter the cell through the cytoplasmic membrane.
Proteases
The Krebs cycle occurs in the _________ in bacteria.
cytoplasm
bacteria do not have a mitochondrion.
true
false
true
_________ reactions are those that can proceed in either direction, thus are reversible.
Amphibolic
_________ is the transfer of the amine group from ammonia to form an amino acid.
Amination
____________ is the transfer of an amine group from amino acid to amino acid.
Transamination
__________ are electron transport molecules that are lipid-soluble, nonprotein carriers.
Ubiquinones
Thylakoid stacks in the chloroplast are called ________, whereas the space between the thylakoid membrane and the outer membrane of the chloroplast is called the _________.
grana; stroma
_________ ______ is the last compound formed in the Krebs cycle
Oxaloacetic acid
Carbon dioxide is produced whenever _____________ occurs in cellular respiration.
decarboxylation
In fermentation, pyruvic acid is generally converted into organic waste products such as________and _________.
alcohol and lactic acid.
Enzymatic reactions reach a saturation point when the active sites of all enzymes present are occupied by substrate molecules. This ___________ is a limiting factor for all enzymatic reactions.
phenomenon
Denaturation of proteins occurs as high temperatures break ___________ bonds such as hydrogen bonds.
noncovalent
ATP is made by substrate-level phosphorylation NOT only during glycolysis, but
A small amount of ATP is also made by substrate-level phosphorylation during the ________ ________.
krebs cycle
Folic acid is used to make purines and __________, part of the building blocks of nucleotides, which are used for the synthesis of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
pyrimidines
RuBP, which stands for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, is necessary for ________ ________ during the Calvin-Benson cycle that occurs as part of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
carbon fixation
Glycerol is degraded via the __________ pathway.
glycolytic
Common fermentation tests include pH indicators, which change colors as the pH of the test changes due to__________fermentation.
microbial
Proton gradients are produced during _______ ________.
cellular respiration
Proton gradients can be used for active transport, ________ _________, and ATP production.
flagellar motion
________ _________ is a means by which a proton gradient is created, not used.
Electron transport
Although the active sites of chlorophylls and cytochromes are structurally similar, they differ in that chlorophylls use ________ rather than the ________ found in cytochromes.
Mg2+; Fe2+
NADPH is produced within the _________ _________ __________, as well as during photosynthesis, not during glycolysis
pentose phosphate pathway,
Sulfanilamide mimics the three-dimensional shape of _______, thereby competitively inhibiting the activity of the enzyme that helps convert PABA into ______ ________
PABA;folic acid.
Oxidation does not always involve oxygen.
true
flase
true
Metabolism is the sum of biochemical reactions within the cells of an organisms, inc. Catabolism, which breaks down molecules and releases ______________, and anabolism , which ______________ molecules and uses energy.
Energy;synthesizes
Precurser metabolites often produced in catabolic reactions are used to synthesize what?
All other organic compounds
_________________reactions are those in which electrons are added. The molecule that donates the electrons in ____________.
Reduction;Oxidized
If the molecule that donates the electron is part of a hydrogen atom, the oxidation reaction is also called ________________.
Dehydrogenation
Oxidation and reduction reactions always occur in pairs called ________-__________(__________) reactions.
Oxidation-reduction(redox)
Three important electron carrier molecules are _______,_____,_____.
Nad+,Nadp+,fad
_________is the addition of phosphate to a molecule.
Phosphorylation
What three types of phosphorylation for ATP?
Substrate level phosphorylation,oxidative phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation
What type of phosphorylation involves the transfer of phosphate from a phosphorylated organic compound to ADP?
Substrate-level phosphorylation
In oxidative phosphorylation, energy from redox reactions of _______________is used to attach inorganic phosphate (PO4 3-) to ADP
Respiration
____________is the phosphorylation of ADP with inorganic phosphate using energy from light.
Photophosphorylation
In photophosphorylation, ADP is phosphorylated with organic or inorganic phosphate?
Inorganic
Catalysts increase rates of chemical reactions. The catalysts is changes in the process. Is this change permanent?
No. Catalysts are not permanently changed in the process of increasing rates of chemical reactions.
-organic catalysts often named for their substrates.
Enzymes
-the molecules for which enzymes (organic catalysts) act upon.
Substrates
Enzymes can be classified as hydrolases,isomerases,ligases (polymerase),____________,oxidoreductases, or __________,reflecting their mode of action.
Lyases;transferases
-the portions of enzymes that may require one or more cofactors such as iorganic ions or organic cofactors.
apoenzymes (aka coenzymes)
-the amount of energy needed to initiate a chemical reaction
activation energy
-the combination of both apoenzyme and its cofactors
holoenzyme
-RNA molecules functioning as enzymes
ribozymes
Substrates fit into the specifically shaped ________ _______ of the enzymes that catalyze their reactions.
active sites
Enzymes may be denatured by physical and chemical factors such as _________and_________. Denaturation may be reversible or permanent.
heat;ph
Enzyme activity proceeds at a rate proportional to .........until all the active sites are filled.
the concentration of substrate molecules
-block active site and thereby block enzyme activity
competetive inhibitors
-attach to an allosteric site on an enzyme, altering the active site so that it is no longer functional.
noncompetitive inhibitors
What type of site (on an enzyme) does a noncompetetive inhibitor attach to and why?
A noncompetetive inhibitor attaches to an allosteric site to alter the active site so that it is no longer functional.
Activation energy-amount of energy needed to ......
trigger a chemical reaction
Active site on an enzyme is shaped complimentary to the shape of the __________.
substrate
-the binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
Allosteric regulation
- __________ __________(___________ ___________) occurs when the final product of a series of reactions is an allosteric inhibitor of some previous step in the series. Thus, accumulation of the end-product "feeds back" into the series a signal that stops the process.
Feedback inhibition (negative feedback)
Feedback inhibitiob (negative feedback) occurs when the final product of a series of reactions is an __________ ________ of some previous step in the series.
allosteric inhibitor
Glycolysis involves the splitting of a glucose molecule and results in two molescules of pyruvic acid and a net gain of two ATP and two NADH molecules. How many stages and steps are in this process.
3 stages;10 steps
The pentose phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff pathways are alternative means for the catabolism of glucose that yield fewer ATP molecules than does glycolysis. What do these two pathways produce that glycolysis does not?
precurser metabolites
Name two alternative means for the catabolism of glucose, that yield fewer molecules than glycolysis?
Pentose phosphate ; Entner-Doudoroff
-a metabolic process that involves the complete oxidation of substrate molecules and the production of ATP following a series of redox reactions
cellular respiration
Two carbons from pyruvic acid join conenzyme A to form _________, (_________), which then enters the Kreb's cycle, a series of 8 enzymatic steps that transfer __________ from Acetyl CoA to coenzymes _________and ________.
acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl CoA);electrons; NAD+ and FAD
The redox reactions in an electron transport chain pass electrons from one membrane-bound carrier to another, and then to the final electron acceptor. The energy from these electrons is used for what?
to pump protons across the membrane
What are the four classes of carrier molecules in electron transport systems?
flavoproteins, ubiquinones, metal-containing proteins,cytochromes
Aerobes use oxygen atoms as final electron acceptors in their electron transport chains in a process known as ____________ _______________.
Aerobic respiration
Anaerobes use inorganic molecules such as (No3-,_____,and CO3 2-), or rarely an externally acquired organic molecule as the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration.
SO4 2-
In ______________, ions flow down their electrochemical gradient across a membrane through ATP synthase (ATPase) to synthesize ATp.
Chemiosmosis
A proton gradient is an electrochemical gradient of ______________ ___________across a membrane.
Hydrogen ions
A proton gradient has potential energy known as a ____________ _______________ ____________.
Proton motive force
Oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation use what type of osmosis?
Chemiosmosis
- the partial oxidation of sugar to release energy using a cellular organic molecule rather than an electron transport chain as the final electron acceptor
Fermentation
End products of fermentation, which are often useful to humans and aid in laboratory identification of microbes, includes what three things?
Acids,alcohols,gases
Lipids and proteins can be catabolized into smaller molecules which can be used as substrates for ____________ and _______________.
Glycolysis and Krebs cycle
- is a process in which enzymes split pairs of hydrogenated carbon atoms from fatty acid and join them coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA.
Beta-oxidation
Beta-oxidation is a catabolic process in which enzymes split pairs of _____________ carbon atoms from fatty acid and join them to coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA.
Hydrogenated
Proteases secreted by microorganisms digest proteins (inside/outside) the microbes cell walls. The resulting _____________ __________ are moved into the cell and used in anabolism, or deaminated and catabolized for energy.
Outside
Proteases secreted by microorganisms digest proteins outside the microbes cell walls. What could happen to the resulting amino acids?
The resulting amino acids are moved into the cell and used in anabolism, or deaminated and catabolized for energy.
Photosynthesis is a process in which light enulergy is captured by pigment molecules called _____________ (bacteriochlorophylls in some bacteria) and transferred to ATP and _____________.
Chlorophylls;metabolites
-networks of lght-absorbing chlorophyll molecules and other pigments held within a protein matrix on membranes called thylakoids.
Photosystems
Photo systems are networks of light-absorbing chlorophyll molecules and other pigments held within a protein matrix on membranes called ______________.
Thylakoids
The redox reactions of photosynthesis are classified as what other types of reactions? (There are two).
Light dependent reactions and light independent reactions
A __________ ______________chlorophyll is a special chlorophyll molecule in a photo system in which electrons are excited by light energy and passed to an acceptor molecule of an electron transport chain.
Reaction center
In ___________ ______________ , photosystem2 works with photo system 1 and the electrons are used to reduce NADP+ to NADpH
Noncyclic photophosphorylation
In __________ ____________, the electrons return to the original reaction center after passing down the electron transport chain.
Cyclic photophosphorylation
In oxygenic photosynthesis, cyanobacteria, algae, and green plants replenish electrons to the reaction center by dissociation of ___________ molecules, resulting in the release of ___________ molecules
H2O;O2
_____________ bacteria derive electrons from inorganic compounds such as H2S, producing waste such as sulfer.
Anoxygenic
In the light independent pathway of photosynthesis, carbon fixation occurs in the Calvin-Benson cycle , in which __________ is reduced to produce glucose.
CO2
What types of reactions are metabolic reactions that are reversible? ( they can operate catabolically or anabolically.)
Amphibolic reactions
Some cells are able to synthesize glucose from amino acids, glycerol, and fatty acids via a process called ____________.
Gluconeogenesis
-occurs when an amine group is transferred from one amino acid to another.
Transamination
Of the following ways in which cells regulate metabolism, what is the way that is seen ONLy in eukaryotes? Control of gene expression, metabolic expression,synthesizing or degrading proteins and enzymes, sequestering reactions in membrane-bound organelles, and feedback inhibition.
Sequestering reactions in membrane-bound organelles
The activation energy of a chemical reaction is lower in the presence of an enzyme. True or False
True
Can activation energy ever be totally eliminated?
No
Is production of NADPH associated with the process of glycolysis?
No
What is the method by which glycolysis produces ATP?
substrate-level phosphorylation
The active site of a chlorophyll molecule is structurally most similar to what?
cytochromes
Proton gradients can be used for active transport, flagellar motion, and ATP production, but Electron transport is a means by which a proton gradient is _______, not _______.
created;not used
________ ________ is a means by which a proton gradient is created, not used.
Electron Transport
What is the major function of fermentation?
It regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis.
Beta-oxidation is a method of catabolizing what molecules?
fatty acids
Describe the function of a photosystem?
It absorbs light energy and converts it to ATP and NADPH.
What is the process of transfering an amine group from one amino acid to another.
transamination
What produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by fixation of CO2 molecules.
Calvin-Benson cycle
RuBP is an important part of what pathway?
the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
*Side Note-RuBP, which stands for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, is necessary for carbon fixation during the Calvin-Benson cycle that occurs as part of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
True or False:Enzymatic reactions reach a saturation point when the active sites of all enzymes present are occupied by substrate molecules.
TRue!!!
This phenomenon is a limiting factor for all enzymatic reactions.
The carrier molecules in electron transport chains are all integral membrane proteins.
TRue or False and why or why not?
False because Ubiquinones are electron transport molecules that are lipid-soluble, nonprotein carriers.
Amphibolic reactions are those that can proceed in either direction, thus are (reversible/irreversible)
reversible
The electron transport chain in eukaryotes is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane. TRue or False?
False! this is only true for organisms that require oxygen