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Child & Adolescent Dev. Exam 3
Terms in this set (65)
What statement about human learning would Piaget most likely make?
children are intrinsically motivated to make sense of the world
Irene knows how to count to 10. She counts the coins she has in her pocket (2 quarters, 5 dimes, 3 nickels) and says "I have 10 cents" From Piaget's perspective, Irene is
assimilating the counting task to the procedure she has learned for counting
As Margo and Kenny are playing outside, a butterfly lands on a leaf next to them. Margo says, "We just learned in science that caterpillars turn into butterflies when they grow up." Kenny is confused & asks lots of questions. He assumed butterflies were born as smaller winging creatures. Kenny is experiencing
Which one of following circumstances best illustrates Piaget's concept of symbolic thinking as it appears in latter part of sensorimotor stage?
babbling with block up to the ear as if talking on cell phone
Ms. Meyer is teaching class unit on amphibians. She asks if student can give her example of amphibian. Sheila raises her hand & says, "Our class pet Mickey is an amphibian." Tommy, another student, responds, "Mickey is not an amphibian. He is a frog." According to Piaget, Tommy is likely in the
Janine's mother owns a bakery & allows girl to help bake chocolate cake. Recipe serves 12 people. Janine realizes for 8 servings calls for 4 eggs. 7 year old Janine needs to make cake that will serve 12 people. Janine realizes mother will need 6 eggs. Considering Janine's age, along with research conducted on Piaget's stages in the last few decades, how can we best explain Janine's ability?
Janine is able to perform calculation bc of her many experiences in the bakery
Which of the following is not a neo-Piagetian approach to learning?
improvements in information processing mechanisms are sole outcome of children practicing skills that tap underlying capacities
Which one of the following teachers is demonstrating an educational practice that follows from Piaget's theory?
Ms. Angola encourages her middle school students to learn more about gravity by having them drop objects from their desks & record speed of falls
Which of the following statements describes Vygotsky's view of cognitive development?
Children develop by working on challenging tasks with the assistance of cultural tools and guidance from more competent individuals
Many children enjoy playing "school". Which statement represents Vygotsky's belief about role of play in cognitive development?
play should be encouraged because it allows children to practice new cognitive skills
The zone of proximal development, according to Vygotsky, refers to
the range of tasks that children cannot yet perform independently, but can perform with the help & guidance of others
Mr. Yeh gives his kindergarten some simple patterns to replicate with geometric blocks. He notices that the children work independently & talk a little to themselves as they solve problems. According to Vygotsky, what is likely to happen if Mr. Yeh gives the children a more challenging pattern to make?
the amount of self talk will probably increase because it facilitates problem solving
Small group of adolescents share opinion about ballot issue & decide to persuade others of viewpoint in letter to editor of local newspaper. One of fathers encourages adolescents to brainstorm strategies for expressing thoughts persuasively. Next, he guides them in developing outline of major points. After they complete the outline, each adolescent addresses one of the major arguments & they edit the letter with a rubric he provides. The adult's approach can best be described as
Which one of the following students is definitely working in his or her zone of proximal development (ZPD)?
Berta is beginning to learn basic woodworking techniques. She has little trouble hammering a nail straight into a piece of wood unless her teacher stands beside her & reminds her of what to do
Vygotsky's theoretical perspective is different from Piaget's because
Vygotsky emphasized importance of adult guidance for promoting cognitive advancements, whereas Piaget focused more on child's own contributions to cognitive development
Which of the following teaching applications best represents view endorsed by both Vygotsky & Piaget?
teachers should be aware of children's current level of ability & develop curriculum that matches these levels
Which of the statements is most accurate explanation for the role that constructivism played in the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky?
Both Piaget and Vygotsky were constructivist theories. Piaget emphasized personal adjustments in child's mental operations, and Vygotsky underscored individual ways that each child learns cultural symbols when engaged in tasks with adults and skilled peers
Which of the following teachers is guiding children's learning in Vygotskian fashion?
first grade teacher demonstrates how to plow furrows in ground, sprinkle carrot seeds into ditches, lightly cover seeds, & spray newly planted areas with water. As children take turns with various steps, she offers tips. As they move to another part of the garden, she distributes small beans & reminds them of the steps "plow, plant, cover, spray" standing by with hints when children veer off course.
How do Piaget and Vygotsky differ in their perspective on culture?
Piaget was more concerned with universal features about child development and thus was not interested in variations in children's abilties according to their cultural experiences. Vygotsky viewed culture as fundamental medium for child development in that children acquire cultural tools while being monitored by adults; these tools transform children's abilities
Which of the following statements best describes the role that the central executive plays in children's cognitive development?
children increasingly control their thinking process
Of the following statements, an information processing theorist would be most likely to endorse which belief?
human memory systems include sensory register, working memory, & long term memory
From information processing perspective, best example of script is knowing
typical sequence of events at birthday party
With practice, children can perform familiar mental tasks more quickly. Which statement gives accurate reason why this is true?
children's mental activities become increasingly automatized
Joint attention & social referencing, which are developments in infancy, require 2 people be "on same page" about events their environment. This understanding is known as
Which of the following strategies is not an effective technique for elementary teachers to foster in order to facilitate children's basic cognitive processes?
advise children of the importance of increasing their working memory capacity
Nine year old Mary Beth has ADHD. Mrs. Jones, Mary Beth's teacher, notices Mary Beth stare off into space during math, and when she turns in her work has made many seemingly careless mistake, Out on playground, Mary Beth generally plays alone, in large part because classmates find her annoying. In classroom she often behaves impulsively. What should Mrs. Jones do to help Mary Beth?
teach her steps in organizing her work, staying focused, controlling impulsive urges, and walking through the steps of projects
Metacognitive development can best be described as
acquiring knowledge about nature of thought & proficiency in using effective learning strategies
Ms. Johnson's preschool students are learning names of various articles of clothing. Ms. Johnson helps students remember items by encouraging them to name all things they wear on feet; then things they wear on legs, arm, and chest; then on hands; and finally on head. What strategy is she using to help her students remember articles of clothing?
Rehearsal refers to cognitive strategy in which a person
repeats information over and over as way of keeping it in working memory long enough to use it
A script is knowledge about predictable sequence of events related to familiar activity
self regulated learning
Mr. Abel gave assignment to 12 graders. After reading short story about adolescent faced with moving to another city during senior year, students created analogy to difficult transitions they each had faced in own lives, such as having parents divorce, favorite teaching moving to another state, or breaking up with romantic partner. What learning strategy did the students use in this assignment?
Rehearsal refers to cognitive strategy in which person
repeats info over and over again as way of keeping it in working memory long enough to use it
The term theory theory refers to
the framework developed by some developmental psychologists indicating children gradually combine self constructed understandings into integrated belief systems, or theories, about particular topics
With regard to theory theory, nativism refers to
idea that some knowledge & inclinations are biologically preprogrammed in the brain
Which of the following strategies would be least likely to facilitate children's theory construction?
ask children to memorize summaries of scientific laws
Which of the following is not a strategy suggested by your text to promote conceptual change?
provide children with rote learning activities to help them acclimate to accurate understandings
Which of the following is a reasonable explanation compatible with the theory theory framework as to why it's helpful to teach a more thorough theoretical explanation for a phenomenon than is the case with children's existing ideas?
a more thorough explanation can facilitate conceptual change
Which of the following statements about physical development is not accurate?
the rate of growth in height and weight is greater during middle childhood than in any other period of life
Which statement best describes the concept of integration?
separate body parts, such as arms, hands and fingers increasingly coordinate their movements in a process known as integration
Which of the following statements best describes the concept of differentiation?
virtually every cell (with exception of gametes) has same genetic instructions, as as body grows, new cells become differentiated that is, progressively able to accomplish particular tasks depending on instructions they receive from body's maturation state & properties of nearby cells
Which of the statement is not consistent with the textbook's explanation of children's growth curves?
a childhood illness permanently alters child's growth curve
Andre can cut 6 in circles & square with scissors with imperfect but increasing ease & accuracy, he's still developing writing grip & is more proficient in coloring with crayons than in writing with pencil. He can catch large ball from 6 ft using his arms & hands. What age range is Andre most likely in?
3 to 4 year old
Which of the following body parts would a child first learn to control according to proximodistal trend?
Monique received tricycle for third birthdya, what principle of physical development explains monique's ability to ride tricycle?
functioning become increasingly integrated
During what period of childhood does child's growth rate slow down?
Which of the following recommendations is not presented in the textbook as a method for promoting healthy eating habits in children?
advise parents that lunches they send in must be prepared as part of vegetarian diet with organically grown fruit, vegetables, seeds, and whole grains
Which of the following is not a contributer to childhood obestiy?
eating a full breakfast
Allision is very thin, bony frame, and not eat a lot of food?
Which of the following is not typically a contributor to adoelscent sleep problems?
the fact teens need as much sleep as 2 year olds but get far less
Which one of the following recommendations does not reflect a good strategy to promote adolescent health?
scare adolescents about detrimental effects of tobacco, drugs, & sexual activity
In order to prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) experts recommend placing babies in which position for sleep?
on their backs
Which one of following descriptions accuratley protrays development of brain?
at birth, child born wiht brain that is structured & ready to become further reine with maturation & experience. Few developments depend on exposure to specific stimuli during sensitive periods in infancy. However, brain retains capacity for learning throughout early childhood, middle childhood, adolesence, and adulthood
Which part of the neuron fires and in so doing sends information to other neurons?
THe process of myelination is essential for processing information. What is also true about this process?
serves to insulate neurons
What part of brain controls physiological process such as breathing, sleep, balance, & movement?
The pre frontal cortex undergoes important developmental changes throughout childhood, this area of brain related to?
planning & decision making
Which of the following statements is false?
evidence shows that structured stimulation must occur during infancy & early childhood in order for areas of brain to be adequately structure for later learning in reading & math
Which of the following statements is not accurate?
children born with irregular brain circuits are not able to learn new skills but should be kept comfortable
Which of the following statements is not true?
by the time children enter school, there are few individual differences in children's self-regulatory abilities because of the strict genetic timetable that governs the emergency of this capacity
Which of the following statements best represents how the information processing and theory theory frameworks are similar?
both frameworks are compatible with commitment of cognitive science to using precise methods in investigating children's thinking
In what respect are information processing theory theory frameworks complementary in focus?
2 perspectives focus on different aspects of thinking, each important with info procesing perspectives examining basic mental processes & regulation, and thoery theory approach documenting integrative explanatory models children hold about physical, biological, and mental circumstances
Which of following statements best represents possible future directions for cognitive science that would address current limitations in perspective?
the field of cognitive science could become more encompassing by integrating information about children's goals, emotions, and social factors
Which of the following statement is not accurate summary of relevance of cognitive science for education?
cognitive scientists have not generated any practical ideas of relevance for educatorsa
Which of the following types of educational practices is more compatible with info processing than with theory theory?
application focsing on getting and maintaining children's attention
Of the 5 theoretical frameworks of language development described in text,
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