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78 terms

Medical Terminology Chp 8

Medical Terminology Chapter 8 - Respiratory System
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or/o stomat/o
Mouth
Begins Preparation of food for digeston
Pharyng/o
Pharynx
Trnasports food from the mouth to the esophagus
gastr/o
Stomach
Breaks down food and mixes it with digestive juices.
enter/o
Small Intestine
Comletes digestion and absorption of most nutrients.
col/o colon/o
Large Intestine
Absorbs excess water and prepares solid waste for elimination.
an/o, proct/o, rect/o, hepat/o
Rectum and anus
Control the excretion of solid waste
cholecyst/o
Gallbladder
Stores bile and releases it to the small intestine as needed.
Pancreat/o
Pancreas
Secretes digestive juices and enzymes into small intestine as needed
an /o
combining form: anal
chol /e
Bile, gall
-emesis
the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
esophag /o
esophagus (tube leading from the throat to the stomach)
hepat /o
combining form for liver
-lithiasis
the formation of stones (calculi) in an internal organ
-pepsia
condition of digestion
-phagia
eating, swallowing
proct /o
anus and rectum
sigmoid /o
sigmoid, pertaining to sigmoid colon
aerophagia
the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
amebic dysentery
amebiasis; transmitted by food or water that is contaminated due to poor sanitary conditions. caused by the one-celled parasite entamoeba histolytica. in the mild form, symptoms include loose stools, stomach pain and stomach cramping. in the severe form, there can be bloody stools and fever
anastomosis
Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
antiemetic
a drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting
aphthous ulcers
grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
bariatrics
The field of medicine that focuses on the treatment and control of obesity and diseases associated with obesity
borborygmus
Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
botulism
food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
cachexia
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS
cheilosis
disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
cholangiography
radiographic imaging of the bile ducts (after administration of contrast media to outline the ducts)
cholangitis
acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice
cholecystalgia
pain in the gallbladder
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones
choledocholithotomy
an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
cholelithiasis
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
cirrohosis
a buildup of fatty and fibrous tissue in the liver, often caused by alcohol abuse
colonoscopy
the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
crohn's diseases
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily of the bowel. Typical symptoms are abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea. There may also be rectal bleeding that can lead to anemia. Special X-rays and tests are needed to differentiate Crohn's from other diseases with similar symptoms.
diverticulitis
presence of inflamed abnormal side pockets in gastrointestinal tract
diverticulosis
presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon
dyspepsia
a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
dysphagia
condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
emesis
the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting
enteritis
inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine)
eructation
the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
esophageal varices
swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
an endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum
gastroduodenostomy
making a new opening between the stomach and duodenum
gastroesophageal reflux disease
the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestional contents into the esophagus, causingheartburn and the gradual breakdown of the mucous barrier of the esophagus
gastrostomy tube
a tube which is surgically placed directly into the client's stomach and provides another route for administering nutrition and medications
hematemesis
Vomiting of blood
Hemoccult test
fecal occult blood test; a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools. a test kit i s used to obtain the specimens at home and these are then evaluated in a laboratory or physician's office
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver, usually caused by a viral infection, that causes fever, loss of appetite, jaundice, fatigue, and altered liver function.
herpes labialis
blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters
hiatal hernia
a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm
hyperemesis
severe and excessive vomiting
ileus
blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
inguinal hernia
occurs when part of the intestine protrudes downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male.
jaundice
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
melena
abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
morbid obesity
Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
nasogastric intubation
the placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach
obesity
overfatness to the point of injuring health. Obesity is often defined as 20 percent or more above the appropriate weight for height
periodontium
consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
proctopexy
the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ
regurgitation
the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
salmonellosis
a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
sigmoidoscopy
the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
stomatorrhagia
bleeding from any part of the mouth
trismus
pertaining to the inability to open the mouth fully; occurs in patients with oral cancer who undergo a combination of surgery and radiation therapy
ulcerative colitis
a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea
volvulus
abnormal twisting of the intestines (usually in the are of the ileum or sigmoid colon) resulting in intestinal obstruction
xerostomia
the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth