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Medical Terminology Chapter 8 - Respiratory System

or/o stomat/o

Begins Preparation of food for digeston


Trnasports food from the mouth to the esophagus


Breaks down food and mixes it with digestive juices.


Small Intestine
Comletes digestion and absorption of most nutrients.

col/o colon/o

Large Intestine
Absorbs excess water and prepares solid waste for elimination.

an/o, proct/o, rect/o, hepat/o

Rectum and anus
Control the excretion of solid waste


Stores bile and releases it to the small intestine as needed.


Secretes digestive juices and enzymes into small intestine as needed

an /o

combining form: anal

chol /e

Bile, gall


the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth

esophag /o

esophagus (tube leading from the throat to the stomach)

hepat /o

combining form for liver


the formation of stones (calculi) in an internal organ


condition of digestion


eating, swallowing

proct /o

anus and rectum

sigmoid /o

sigmoid, pertaining to sigmoid colon


the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach

amebic dysentery

amebiasis; transmitted by food or water that is contaminated due to poor sanitary conditions. caused by the one-celled parasite entamoeba histolytica. in the mild form, symptoms include loose stools, stomach pain and stomach cramping. in the severe form, there can be bloody stools and fever


Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve


a drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting

aphthous ulcers

grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers


abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity


The field of medicine that focuses on the treatment and control of obesity and diseases associated with obesity


Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine


food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.


a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS


disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth


radiographic imaging of the bile ducts (after administration of contrast media to outline the ducts)


acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice


pain in the gallbladder


surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)


inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones


an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones


the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder


an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food


a buildup of fatty and fibrous tissue in the liver, often caused by alcohol abuse


the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum

crohn's diseases

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily of the bowel. Typical symptoms are abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea. There may also be rectal bleeding that can lead to anemia. Special X-rays and tests are needed to differentiate Crohn's from other diseases with similar symptoms.


presence of inflamed abnormal side pockets in gastrointestinal tract


presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon


a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea


condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful


the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting


inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine)


the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach

esophageal varices

swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage


an endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum


making a new opening between the stomach and duodenum

gastroesophageal reflux disease

the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestional contents into the esophagus, causingheartburn and the gradual breakdown of the mucous barrier of the esophagus

gastrostomy tube

a tube which is surgically placed directly into the client's stomach and provides another route for administering nutrition and medications


Vomiting of blood

Hemoccult test

fecal occult blood test; a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools. a test kit i s used to obtain the specimens at home and these are then evaluated in a laboratory or physician's office


inflammation of the liver, usually caused by a viral infection, that causes fever, loss of appetite, jaundice, fatigue, and altered liver function.

herpes labialis

blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters

hiatal hernia

a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm


severe and excessive vomiting


blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel

inguinal hernia

occurs when part of the intestine protrudes downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male.


yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood


abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)

morbid obesity

Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight

nasogastric intubation

the placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach


overfatness to the point of injuring health. Obesity is often defined as 20 percent or more above the appropriate weight for height


consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth


involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system


the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ


the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth


a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium


the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon


bleeding from any part of the mouth


pertaining to the inability to open the mouth fully; occurs in patients with oral cancer who undergo a combination of surgery and radiation therapy

ulcerative colitis

a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea


abnormal twisting of the intestines (usually in the are of the ileum or sigmoid colon) resulting in intestinal obstruction


the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth

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