293 terms

8th GRADE TEKS Soc. Studies Review

A comprehensive list of all 8th grade social studies TEKS

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The first permanent English settlement. Established in Virginia.
Plymouth is established as the second permanent English settlement. Established in Massachussetts. Pilgrims were seeking religious freedom.
U.S. Constitution written. Ratified in 1789.
Lousiana Purchase made by Thomas Jefferson from Napoleon Bonaparte of France. Doubled the Size of the U.S.
Civil War between the North and South in order to preserve the union and determine the future of slavery in the United States.
Reasons for Exploration
God, Gold, Glory
-New Trade Routes
-Religious Freedom
Mayflower Compact
1st charter for self-government. Written aboard the ship the Mayflower in 1620.
Slavery in Colonial America
Slaves were brought to Jamestown to grow tobacco. Southern colonies had fertile farm land and more slaves were used in the South than North in order to grow crops. Slaves worked in PLANTATIONS, or large southern farms.
French and Indian War
1780's. France and Indian allies vs. British and their 13 colonies. They were fighting over the control of Mississippi River and territory.
New England Colonies (North)
-Settled mostly by white Puritans seeking religious freedom.
-Mostly intolerant of other religions.
-strong work ethic
-lands were not good for farming. Colonists living in this area had fish and plenty of timber (wood). Harsh winters.
-Economy: fishing, ship building, crafts, manufacturing
-high population density & large urban areas (ports & waterways)
Middle Colonies
-Settled mostly by white Protestants of different religions.
-good farm land, fur resources, and cool climate
-"bread basket" colonies
-Economy:farming, furs, grew wheat, herding animals
-high population density & large urban areas (ports & waterways)
Southern Colonies
-Settled mostly for economic reasons
-Some very wealthy settlers (nobles) lived in this area. They owned large PLANTATIONS or farms.
-slave population grew due to good farm land
-Economy: mostly farming, small farms and plantations exported cash crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton)
-low population density
First Great Awakening
-A religious movement in colonial America
-Revival of religious beliefs
-Preachers said salvation was for everyone, and everyone was equal
-Inspired democratic ideas for government
-Johnathan Edward's famous speech: Sinners at the Hands of an Angry God
The economic system of colonial America in which the British controlled all trade. Colonies would send raw materials to England, and England would manufacture and sell back to the colonies. Colonies were not allowed to choose trade partners or make certain products.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
1st written constitution in the colonies. Our U.S. Constitution is modeled after it.
The Virginia House of Burguesses
1st representative law-making body in colonial America. Our congress is modeled after this concept.
English Bill of Rights
Guaranteed British citizens certain rights such as speedy trial and trial by jury. Our Constitution includes a Bill of Rights (first 10 Amendments)
Magna Carta
Signed by King John in the year 1215. Limited the kings power.
Thomas Hooker
Influenced the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. Believed in democratic ideas and limited government.
Charles de Montesquieu
Philosopher who suggested the idea of separation of powers and 3 branches of government.
John Locke
Philosopher who believed in the idea of social contract (the government rules with the peoples' permission), and that if a government is corrupt, it is the right of the people to overthrow the government and establish a better government. His ideas justified the colonists desire for independence.
William Blackstone
Judge who wrote about the laws of England. Believed in religious tolerance. Wrote about "natural rights" that people are born with. These ideas were later adopted into the Declaration of Independence.
William Penn
Established the colony of Pennsylvania where Quakers (religious group) could live according to their religious beliefs.
Religious Dissenters
People who dont agree with certain religious beliefs and decided to make their own colony.
-Anne Hutchinson
-Roger Williams
-William Penn
Johnathan Edwards
Author of the speech, "Sinners at the Hands of an Angry God" written during the First Great Awakening. Preached reform, repentance, and salvation for all.
Salutary Neglect
To be left alone to do as you please. Because colonies were left alone for so long, they were less willing to adhere to British rules and taxes.
Religious Groups that came to Colonies
-Puritans (New England)
-Catholics (Maryland)
Proclamation of 1763
King George III did not allow colonists to cross west of the Appalachian Mountains after the French and Indian War. This angered colonists who wanted the fertile farm land accross the Appalachians.
-Mountains served as buffer to reduce threat of violence
Intolerable Acts
Also known as the Coercive Acts. After the colonists held the Boston Tea Party, King George ordered that Boston harbor be closed down until all the tea was paid for (to punish them).
Stamp Act
Tax on anything that was printed on paper.
No Taxation without Representation
This was the major grievance the colonists had against the British government. Colonies felt they were not being represented in British government since no colonist was present in parliament. The British claimed that a British citizen was representing them, and since the colonies were British, they were indeed being represented.
Abigail Adams
The wife of John Adams. Wrote a letter to her husband in which she insists that he, "Remember the Ladies...."
-led lady groups in supporting their men who were away creating American diplomacy
John Adams
lawyer and politician. Represented the British soldiers accused in the Boston Massacre. Was a member of the Continental Congress and supported independence.
Wentworth Cheswell
African American who served in the army and fought in the Battle of Saratoga
Samuel Adams
played a role in many of the events which contributed to the American Revolution, organized opposition to the British taxes. Member of the Sons of Liberty protest group.
Mercy Otis Warren
wife of a Massachusetts patriot. Anonymously wrote several propaganda pieces supporting the patriot cause.
James Armistead
slave in Virginia. Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army. Worked as a double agent. Contributed to the American victory at Yorktown.
Benjamin Franklin
-a member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Indpenedence
-spent most of the American Revolution in France to negotiate alliance and Treaty of Paris
John Paul Jones
-Accredited with the establishment of the U.S.Navy
-" I have not yet begun to fight"
Bernardo de Galvez
-Spanish nobleman
-governor of Louisiana
-protected American ships in the port of New Orleans, helped transport war supplies and prevented a British entry to the U.S. through Louisiana
Crispus Attucks
-black man who was the first casulty of the American Revolution
-killed during the Boston Massacre
King George III
-feared the loss of their colonies
-maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance.
Haym Solomon
-Polish-born Jewish immigrant
-played an important role in financing the American Revolution
-paymaster for the French troops in America
Patrick Henry
"Give me Liberty or give me death"
-Member of the Virginia House of Burguesses
Thomas Paine
-wrote "Common Sense" persuading Americans to join the Patriot cause
George Washington
-First president of the United States
-was Commander in Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution
-Soldier during the French and Indian War
-Wrote the Farewell Address
-Member of the Continental Congress
Declaration of Independence
-July 4,1776
-List of grievences (complaints) colonists had against the British government
-Inspired by John Locke
-Written by Thomas Jefferson
Unalienable Rights
-Persuit of Happyness
-Rights that can not be taken, you were born with
Articles of Confederation
-1st form of government of the United States after the American Revolution
-only had one branch of government (congress)
-Was weak since there was no branch to enforce laws
-Shay's Rebellion illustrated the ineffectiveness of the Articles
Battles of Lexington & Concord
-1st battles of the American Revolution
-Paul Revere's Ride, "The British are coming"
-nicknamed "the shot heard around the world"
Battle of Saratoga
-turning point of the American Revolution
-After this battle, France became allies with the colonies
(examples: Marquis de Lafayette, use of French navy during battle of Yorktown, etc.)
Battle of Yorktown
British General Cornwallis surrenders and brings and end to the American Revolution
Winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
-winter of 1777
-Colonial Amry trained into professional soldiers
-Many deserted, died, or had disease
-harsh winter. Many got frostbite
Treaty of Paris of 1783
-Ended the American Revolution
-Signed in Paris, France
-American independence recongnized
-boundaries were set
Articles of Confederation
-First form of government in the United States after the American Revolution
-Northwest Ordinance
-Congress did not have the power to levy taxes
-No national army
-Each state had their own currency
-Resulted in Shay's Rebellion
Shay's Rebellion
-Farmers who had served as soldiers during the American Revolution were being foreclosed (farms were being taken) because they did not have money to pay off their debts.
-Since congress under the Articles of Confederation could not tax, there was no money to pay former soldiers
Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787
-Meeting called in Philadelphia in order to amend the Articles of Confederation
-Articles of Confederation were replaced by the U.S. Constitution
-9 out of 13 states had to ratify
Virginia Plan
-large state plan that proposed representation based on population size.
-Proposed by James Madison
New Jersey Plan
-small state plan that proposed equal representation among all states
The Great Compromise
-proposed by Roger Sherman
-proposed a two-house legislature with House of Representatives based on population and the Senate maintaining equal representation from all states
3/5 Compromise
-said that 3/5 of slave population would be counted for taxation (since slaves were considered property)
- 3/5 ration would also be used to determine representation in legislature (congress)
- argued for stronger national government
-manufacturing class
-wanted a national bank
-wanted to get rid of the Articles of Confederation and replace them with the U.S. Constitution
-Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
-After the Hartford Convention, during the War of 1812, the party stopped existing (fell out of favor for criticizing the president during the War of 1812)
-supported states rights
-wanted a weak central government
-believed national bank was unconstitutional
-wanted to keep, and only revise the Articles of Confederation
-refused to ratify the U.S. Constitution unless a Bill of Rights was added
-Thomas Jefferson,
Bill of Rights
-the first 10 amendments of the Constitution
-protected individual freedoms
-modeled after English Bill of Rights
-A change made to the U.S. Constitution
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan
-plan created by Alexander Hamilton to get the country's finances in order
-proposed the following: creation of national bank, tax on whiskey, protective tariffs, combining all debts of the American Revolution, same currency for all states
-his tax on whiskey caused the Whiskey Rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
-farmers in western Pennsylvania staged a rebellion against the government's tax on whiskey.
-Washington sent out federal troops to put down the rebellion. The rebels fled (ran away).
George Washington's Farewell Address
-a speech made and written by George Washington right before he left office in which he left two pieces of advice: to stay neutral and stay away from political parties
-his advice guides U.S. foreign policy even today
John Adams
-2nd president of the United States
-XYZ affair
-Alien & Sedition Acts
-Marbury vs. Madison
XYZ affair
-French were impressing American sailors
-President John Adams arranged a meeting with the French foreign prime minster to talk about the issue
-3 French agents known as X,Y, and Z asked the United States for a loan and a bribe in exchange for leaving the U.S. alone
-U.S. said they would rather go to war with France
the Elastic Clause
-also known as the "necessary and proper clause"
-It was the one phrase in the Constitution that would allow the passing of any law that was considered "necessary and proper".
-Federalists said that the "Elastic Clause" allowed a loose interpretation of the Constitution, and therefore they could create a national bank since it was "necessary and proper".
Federal Judiciary Act of 1789
-passed by George Washington
-created/designed the state and federal court system
Alien & Sedition Acts
-passed by John Adams
-The law said that people, especially French immigrants, could not speak, write, or publish anything that criticized the government.
-If they did, immigrants (and people in general) could be deported or jailed.
Marbury vs. Madison
-Court case in which Judicial review was established by Judge John Marshall
-Marbury was suing in court because he was not being hired as judge after John Adams left office
-The supreme court ruled that the law under which Marbury was hired was unconstitutional, and because the president that hired him was no longer in office, the government was not obligated to hire him
Presidential Cabinet
-established by George Washington
-they were a group of advisors
Thomas Jefferson
-3rd president of the United States
-purchased the Louisiana Territory
-passed the Embargo Act of 1807 and the Non-Intercourse Act in order to maintain neutrality
-a leader in the American Revolution
-chief writer of the Declaration of independence
Louisiana Territory
-doubled the size of the U.S.
-purchased from France (Napoleon Bonaparte) for 15 million dollars
-Jefferson sent Lewis and Clarke to explore the new territory
Embargo Act of 1807
-law passed during Thomas Jefferson's presidency in order to maintain neutrality
-law stated that the U.S. could not trade with ANY European country
-was unsuccessful
Non-Intercourse Act
-After the Embargo Act was repealed, Jefferson passed a law that said the U.S. could trade with anyone, EXCEPT for England and France (which were impressing American sailors)
Protective Tariffs
-a tax on imported goods
-meant to increase and protect American factories & industry
-North wanted high protective tariffs
-South did not want high protective tariffs because they did not manufacture and imported most of their goods
-formerly known as the Anti-Federalists
James Madison
-4th president of the United States
-in office during the War of 1812
-involved in the court case Marbury vs. Madison
-Father of the Constitution
-wrote the 10 Amendments to compromise with the Anti-Federalists
War of 1812
-U.S. vs. the British
-Main reason for war was impressment of American sailors
-There was no winner in the war. It was a draw (both sides gave up).
-War ended with the Treaty of Ghent
-U.S. gained respect as world power and started to manufacture their own goods
Battle of New Orleans
-Andrew Jackson became a war hero during this battle
-this battle took place after the War of 1812 had ended because communication was slow
The Burning of the White House
-During the War of 1812, the British marched on the White House
-Dolly Madison, wife of James Madison rescued a painting of George Washington from burning in the White House
Fort McHenry
-during this battle of the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key composed the "Star-Spangled Banner"
Treaty of Ghent
-peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 and restored the relations between the U.S. and Britain
War Hawks
-Southern or Westerners who supported and sought to persuade congress and president to wage war against the British during the War of 1812.
-forcefully kidnapping American sailors and making them serve in the military (French & British did this to American sailors)
James Monroe
-5th president of the United States
-wrote and enacted the Monroe Doctrine
-Florida is ceded by Spain to the United States (Andrew Jackson is sent to Florida to threaten Spain)
Monroe Doctrine
-The Monroe Doctrine forbade European countries from colonizing and interfering with the Americas (both north and south)
Andrew Jackson
-hero of the Battle of New Orleans, later elected president of the United States
-Democratic; friend to the "common man"
-gave all white men the right to vote, regardless of land ownership
- passed the Indian Removal Act which caused the Trail of Tears
Indian Removal Act
-because of Manifest Destiny, Americans wanted Native American lands
-this law allowed the President to remove Indian Tribes living east of the Mississippi.
-Tribes were to be moved west to reservations
Trail of Tears
-the journey made by Native Americans as they were removed forcibly from their tribal home lands by the U.S. government
-since they refused to leave their homelands out of their own free will, the government forcibly relocated them.
-Many Native Americans died of disease, hunger, harsh winter conditions
Worcester vs. Georgia
-Cherokee tribe sued the state of Georgia to keep their homeland
-lost the first trial, and went back to court a second time to argue that they were a sovereign nation and that Georgia's ruling over them was unconstitutional. Settlers were also occupying their homeland which was a violation of Georgia's laws
-Jackson ignored Cherokee victory and continued to allow settlers to continue to occupy Cherokee lands.
Nullification Crisis
-during Jackson's presidency there was a debate over tariffs
-South Carolina nullifies (ignore a law they think is unconstitutional) these tariffs since they believe them to be unconstitutional.
-With the support of John C. Calhoun, South Carolina tells President Jackson that if they are made to pay tariffs, they will secede from the union.
-Henry Clay arranges for the rate of the tariffs to be lower, and for the moment avoid the secession of the state.
Northwest Ordinance
-a set of qualifications, rules and guidelines by which a territory could become part of the United States.
-Qualifications were as follows:
-self-government, have a constitution that was similar to the U.S. Constitution
-Have at least 5,000 men who owned 50 acres each
-60,000 total population
Manifest Destiny
-the idea that it was the United States' God-given right to expand from sea to shining sea
-Westward expansion, growth, acquisition of new territories, removal of Native Americans, allowed religious groups some religious freedom
The Second Great Awakening
-a religious revival based on the idea of bettering the social, political, economic conditions in the United States
-Mormons migrated west seeking a place where they could worship freely and avoid persecution
Oregon Trail
-route taken to reach Oregon Territory
-Oregon needed to be settled in order to remove threat of British invasion/intrusion.
-many farmers wanted to go to Oregon Territory to start up a farm or store
-When machines/tools replace human labor
-caused urbanization to occur
-more job opportunities in cities
-working in factories provided a more stable job than farming
-Industry had its beginnings during the War of 1812, when Americans had to learn to manufacture their own goods.
-the process of moving from rural to urban
-many left farms in order to seek a more stable job
-as cities grew there was increased pollution, crime, job competition, corruption, disease,
Samuel Slater
-helped industrialization develop in the United States by memorizing models of machines (during the War of 1812) and re-building them in the U.S.
-he made a fortune
Francis Cabot Lowell
-first person to establish a factory system
-his textile mills were located in Massachusetts
-employed women workers
Annexation of Texas
-Texas obtained their independence in 1845 and wanted to be annexed into the United States
-Mexico claimed the United States could not annex Texas because Texas still belonged to Mexico
-U.S. (president James K. Polk) decides to go to war with Mexico to settle the issue
Mexican- American War
-war between Mexico and the United States in order to settle the border of between the United States and Mexico, and to decide Texas' fate
-considered to be a "war of aggression" because it was purposely started by the United States as a means of fulfilling its Manifest Destiny and expansion
-Ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-ended the Mexican-American war
-Mexico ceded parts of California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, Kansas, and Wyoming
-U.S. takes 1/3 of Mexican territory
-Texas is made a state
Gadsden Purchase
-Mexico is coerced to sell a small piece of land in Arizona area for $10 million to the United States as par of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexican Cession 1848
-territory won from Mexico during the Mexican-American war
-Included part of New Mexico, Colorado, California, Nevada, New Mexico and several other western states
Alaska Purchase
-purchased from Russia
-later found to have precious natural resources such as gold and oil
Protective Tariffs
North- high tariffs protected Northern industry and manufacturing
South- opposed tariffs because they purchased most of their manufactured goods and would have to pay high tariffs for foreign goods
West- the west agreed with high tariffs because it would allow for internal improvement projects.
-had no political voice, no rights, 3/5 compromise counted as population
-labor of the plantation system, considered property, children considered property and sold
-viewed as a group of outsiders, formed communities within the plantation system
-family, religion, and avtive resistance were their only comfort.
-illegal in north since the American Revolution
Free Blacks
-had no political voice; limited/ restricted rights
-low wage owners
-lowest social class, limited acess to education, seen as outsiders by Americans
Missouri Compromise
-Missouri entered the Union as slave state and Maine entered as free state. All territory above the Missouri Compromise line would be free. All territory below the Missouri Compromise line would be reserved for slavery.
-Negotiated by Henry Clay
Compromise of 1850
-Negotiated by Henry Clay
-California was admitted as a free state
-slave trade was abolished in Washinton, D.C.
-Fugitive Slave Act as a means of keeping South content and help slave holders recaputure runaway slaves
-large southern farms which owned, and relied on hundreds of slaves in order to run the plantation and produce crops in large amounts
-Religion drew slaves together at plantations; commuicated through spirituals
Nullification Crisis
-high tariffs passed during Andrew Jackson's presidency
-South Carolina was angered by this tax
-supported by John C. Calhoun, South Carolina declared the law unconstitutional within the state (they nullified the law)
-Federal government declared this could not be done by states
-Henry Clay proposed a lower tariff (Compromise Tariff) in order to prevent a civil war
Kansas-Nebraska Act
-Proposed by Stephen F. Douglas
-based on the idea of popular sovereignty
-allowed for Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not they would enter the union as slave or free
-caused "Bloody Kansas"
John C. Calhoun
-Senator from South Carolina
-former war hawk
-opposed high tariffs and supported South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis
Henry Clay
- senator from Kentucky (West)
-Known as the "Great Compromiser" (negotiator)
-Came up with the Missouri Compromise of 1830 and the Compromise of 1850
Daniel Webster
-senator from Massachusetts known as the "Great Orator" (speaker)
-worked to create compromises with the Southern states that would delay the Civil War
Jefferson Davis
-President of the Confederacy
-Claimed that secession was a "need, not a choice"
Ulysses S. Grant
-main commander of the Union forces
Robert E. Lee
-commander of the army of Virginia
-main commander of the Confederate army
Abraham Lincoln
-16th president of the United States (during the Civil War)
-wrote the Emancipation Proclamation
-wrote the Gettysburg Address
Reasons for Establishing Colonies
*Political- competition with Spain and France who had many colonies in America
*Economic- increase trade and markets for English exports; source for raw materials
*Religious freedom
*Social- opportunity for adventure; England was overcrowded and settlers desired owning land
Reasons for Representative Government
-colonists needed to make their own laws to keep order
-colonists were accustomed to English structures
-most colonies were self-governing
Penn Colony (Pennsylvania)
colony that was created for the possibility of equality and citizen involvement in the government
Causes of the American Revolution
-Proclamation of 1763
-Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
-Stamp Act
-Lack of Representation in Parliament
-British economic policies
British Economic Policies
Policies following the French and Indian war which raised money to help pay off the debt incurred from the colonists and caused colonists to resent British rule
(Ex: Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townsend Acts, Tea Act, etc.)
The Marquis de Lafayette
French aristocrat who played a leading role in the French and American Revolution. He fought in the American Revolution commanding forces as a major general in the colonial army.
Domestic Problems Faced by the New Republic
maintaining national security, building a military, creating a stable economic system, setting up the court system, and defining the authority of the central government
National Bank
Based on the interpretation of the elastic clause of the Constitution, this was "necessary and proper" to carry out the government's duties.
States' Rights
-limitation of federal powers
-states had rights that the federal government could not violate
-states could nullify federal laws
-used to protect slavery
Low Tariffs
-Taxes on foreign goods were low which means more international trade was taking place
-hurts American businesses since people are buying from other countries
When the government requests money from its citizens in order to improve the country, pay for expenses, and make improvements.
Banking System
Created as industries began to expand and their need for loans increased. It became very important to the growth of the economy.
-wanted to limit the power of the federal government
-strict interpretation of the Constitution
-promoted agriculture
-did not want a federal bank
-Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
-supported by farmers and workers
Causes of the War of 1812
-Impressments of U.S. Sailors
-Shipping interference
-British supported American Indian resistance against Americans
Events of the War of 1812
-Attack on Washington, D.C. (burning of the White House)
-Bombardment of Fort Henry
-Battle of New Orleans
-Treaty of Ghent
Effects of the War of 1812
-U.S. gained international respect for withstanding the British attack
-improved the professionalism of the U.S. Army
-creation of a cotton-manufacturing industry and other manufacturing establishments making the U.S. industrially independent of Europe.
Foreign policy of president George Washington that was declared when the British and French went to war against each other. The president believed that the U.S. needed to remain neutral in order to survive.
Impact of the Monroe Doctrine
-The U.S. saw itself as a world power and a protector of Latin America
-Prevented other nations from colonizing in America even today
Impact of the Election of Andrew Jackson
-shift of power to the common man because of suffrage rights
-eliminated property ownership for voting
-his views left a legacy to the modern Democratic Party
-Democracy in social, economic, and political life
-Government by the people
Roots of Manifest Destiny
*Economic- new land for farmers; new trade routes and markets
*Political- expansion of the nation's territory; expansion of slavery
*Social- remove Native Americans
Routes of Exploration and Settlement
-Lewis & Clark trail
-Santa Fe Trail
-Oregon Trail
-Pony Express
-Transcontinental Railroad
Causes of the Mexican- American War
-desire to expand the U.S. (manifest destiny)
-border dispute concerning the southern boundary of Texas (Rio Grande was claimed by Texas and disputed by Mexico)
Effects/Impact of the Mexican- American War
-Treaty of Guadalupe which grants the U.S. the Mexican territory of New Mexico, Arizona, and California
-Gadsden Purchase
-Annexation of Texas
Areas Acquired to Form the U.S.
-Louisiana Territory
-Mexican Cession (New Mexico, Arizona, California)
-Oregon Territory
-Alaska Purchase (Seward's Folly)
Impact of Tariff Policies on the North
-helped the industrialization by making prices more competitive against cheap imports
-northerners liked tariffs because it caused Americans to buy more American made products by increasing the cost of European imported manufactured goods
Impact of Tariff Policies on the South
-saw high tariffs as a burden since it had little industry and imported most non-agricultural goods mostly from Europe
Impact of Tariff Policies on the West
-backed government spending on internal improvements such as new roads and canals, and they were financed by tariffs
Southern Plantation System
-relied on slavery
-slaves had no property and no rights
-religion drew slaves together
Northern Industrial Economy
-slave trade abolished in north
-high population of free blacks
-free blacks could own property and had some rights
Southern View of Slavery
-slaves viewed as property and labor supply
-aided in the development of plantation systems and agricultural southern sectionalism
-considered a state's right issue
Northern View of Slavery
-illegal since the Revolution
-had abolitionist societies, newspapers and Underground Railroad
-had mixed thoughts about free blacks
Western View of Slavery
-fought over whether or not to extend slavery into the territories
Conflicts and Compromises Prior to Civil War
-Missouri Compromise
-Nullification Crisis
-Compromise of 1850
-Kansas-Nebraska Act
William Carney
-born a slave
-served in the Massachusetts Colored Regiment for the Union forces during the Civil War
-first black soldier to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor for protecting the flag under a fierce attack
Philip Bazaar
-born in Chile, South America
-a Navy seaman in the Union Navy
-received the Medal of Honor for service during the Civil War
-during the assault on Fort Fisher he entered the fort and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches during the battle
Causes of the Civil War
-States' rights
-placing the needs of one section of the nation over the needs of the whole nation
-needs of individual parts become more important that the well-being of the greater whole
-situation between the Northern and Southern states who refused to concede to the other on specific issues
Slavery prior Civil War
-southern politicians wanted to defend slavery by retaining control of the federal government
-the difference in slave and free states as well as a northern boost in population doomed Southern efforts to maintain balance in the government
-this potentially meant the future addition of more free states and the election of a Northern anti-slavery president.
Events of the Civil War
-firing on Fort Sumter
-Battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg
-Emancipation Proclamation
-Lee's surrender
-assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Fort Sumter
-a federal fort in Charleston Harbor
-fired upon by rebel forcers to begin Civil War (April 1861)
Battle of Antietam
-1st battle of the Civil War to take place in the North
-Union forces won
-built Union confidence
-led President Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Gettysburg
-turning point of the Civil War
-Lee's invasion of northern territory is driven away
-the South is no longer capable of an offensive attack into Union territory
Siege of Vicksburg
the north captures this fort to gain control of the Mississippi River and divided the Southern states
Emancipation Proclamation
-freed the slaves in the rebelling territories
-written by Abraham Lincoln
Assassination of Lincoln
-shot by John Wilkes Booth, a southern sympathizer
Lee's Surrender
-at Appomattox Court House
-brings Civil War to an end
-Lee surrenders the Confederate forces of Virginia to Grant
Lincoln's 1st Inaugural Address
-no intent to abolish slavery
-preserve the Union
-against the law to secede from the Union
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address
-slavery continued the Civil War
-disapproved slavery
-fought for restoration of peace and the Union
-stated people were trying to destroy the government with or without war
Gettysburg Address
-written by Abraham Lincoln
-all slaves in the Confederate states would be free
-country was worth fighting
-"The government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall be preserved."
Jefferson Davis' Inaugural Address
-Claimed that secession was a "need, not a choice"
-freedom from North's oppression of the South
-want to obtain respect for the rights to which they were entitled
-establish a government system similar to the U.S. Constitution
-right of the people to alter or abolish governments whenever they become destructive
Freedman's Bureau
-established in the War Department
-supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen (issuing rations, clothing, medicine, regulate labor, and establish schools)
-assumed custody of confiscated land in the former Confederate States
13th Amendment
-abolishment of slavery
Reconstruction Act of 1867
-military occupation of the former Confederate State
-strict guidelines on representation and requirement for readmission to the Union
14th Amendment
-grants citizenship to slaves freed
-Equal protection clause (equal protection under the law to all people)
-Due process clause (forbids states from denying any person life, liberty, or property without the due process of the law)
15th Amendment
-right to vote (males)
Civil Rights Act of 1866
-granted citizenship to persons born in the United States, except native Americans
Legislative Reforms of Reconstruction
-Freedman's Bureau
-13th, 14th & 15th Amendment
-Reconstruction Act of 1867
-Civil Rights Act of 1866
Hiram Rhodes Revels
-first African-American Senator in the U.S. Senate
-represented Mississippi
-spoke against racial segregation
Black Codes
-laws passed in the South during Reconstruction to limit the opportunity of blacks
Jim Crow Laws
-laws passed to bypass laws that Southerners did not agree with concerning African Americans
-led to the creation of the Ku Klux Klan
-African American were not able to participate in government or exercise their rights
Ku Klux Klan
-secret society to weaken Republican rule and terrorize African Americans
-originally formed by former Confederate soldiers to keep former slaves from voting and destroy Congressional Reconstruction
Reconstruction of the South
-by Radical Republicans (resented by Southerners)
-states organized into military districts
-transitioning blacks from slaves to citizens (Freedmen's Bureau)
-over 1,000 schools built
-most people were not given what was promised and were not ready to live as productive citizens
-people taking advantage of the rebuilding (scalawags, carpetbaggers)
-Southerners who worked with the Republicans
-seen as traitors by the Southerners
-Northerners who went to the South and became involved in the new state politics
-called this because of the luggage they carried
-not trusted by Southerners
-many took advantage of the Southerners' situation
Problems/Impact of Reconstruction (1)
-southerners found ways to go around the federal laws put in place to protect freed slaves (Black Codes, Jim Crow Laws)
-freed slaves had to follow laws passed by the states they lived in which limited their opportunities
-white southerners kept blacks from gaining equality
Problems/Impact of Reconstruction (2)
-after Reconstruction was over, Republicans did not have any political power in the South for over 100 years
-Democrats ruled the South for over 100 years
-most freed slaves ended up working on plantations or sharecropping like they had before
Homestead Act
-granted adult heads of families 160 acres of land
-claimants were required to build and cultivate the land
-after 5 years, the claimant owned the property
*IMPACT: accelerated the settlement of the western territory
Morrill Act
-established colleges in western territories as land-grant institutions
*IMPACT: opened opportunities to farmers,working people and African Americans who had been excluded from higher education
-facilitated the founding of the University of Texas and Texas A&M University
Dawes Act
-allowed the for the President to break up reservation land that was owned by members of a tribe
-small portions of reservation land were given individually to American Indians
-protected Indian property rights
Impact of the Dawes Act
-the land given to the Indians included desert lands unsuitable for farming
-many did not want to take up farming and those whose did could not afford the supplies necessary to get started
Effects of Physical Geographic Factors on Historical Events
-proximity to Atlantic coastline determined where settlements/colonies were created
-river systems allowed Lewis and Clark to explore Louisiana during expansion (Manifest Destiny)
-during the Civil War the type of land for battle and supply of fresh water were physical factors taken into account
Effects of Human Geographic Factors on Historical Events
Note: human geography studies human activities
-the Louisiana purchase allowed American to use the river systems for trade and development of the New Orleans Port
-During Sectionalism and the Civil War: manufacturing vs. agriculture, shifts in population, construction of railroads
California's Gold Rush
-a rush of settlers to California after gold was found
-population of California rises to the amount required for statehood
Rocky Mountains
-location between eastern and western parts of the United States
-railroad built to transport goods from East to West
Settlement Patterns of Industrialization
-factories near transportation hubs (canals/railroads) resulted in cities growing in proximity (New York City and Chicago)
-the need for cheap labor resulted in jobs and caused many immigrants to migrate to cities
-Positive: Increased communication and trade between the East and the West
-Negative: Air pollution, destruction of natural environment
Transatlantic Slave Trade
-started in the British West Indies to provide a labor force for the sugar plantations
-the triangular trade developed between the Colonies, England, and West Indies
-slaves were traded in the colonies for other goods
Reasons for the Spread of Slavery
-Demand for rice, indigo, tobacco, cotton led to plantation owners needing more slaves and the slave trade increased
-the invention of the cotton gin made the cleaning process quicker, thus a larger work force was needed to keep up (drastic rise in the number of slaves)
Reasons for the Increase in Factories and Urbanization
-industrial revolution led to changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology
-steam power capabilities increased production
-In the War of 1812 (U.S. vs. the British), the British blockade of the American coast created a shortage of cotton cloth leading to the creation of a cotton-manufacturing industry in the U.S.
Economic Factors that Brought Rapid Industrialization & Urbanization
-plentiful natural resources
-improved transportation
-growing population
-new inventions
-investment capital
Free Enterprise System
-evolutionary process during the 1800's
-Americans focused on the right to choose trade partners, prices, and products
-ideas of capitalism over mercantilism
-European countries were too far away to control how colonies did business and trade
-Revolution occurred when England tried to regain control of trade and industry in America
4 Components of Free Enterprise and Economic Freedom
-Private property
-Voluntary exchange
-Profit motive
-Supply and demand
-government should not interfere in the economy other than to protect private property rights and to maintain peace
-"Hands Off" Government
-risking money to organize and run a business
-the U.S. Constitution guaranteed economic rights of freedom to own, compete, and select an occupation
Benefits of the Free Enterprise System
-Foreign investment
-rights of workers and owners protected by U.S. Constitution
-diverse economy
-less dependency on foreign markets
-Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century
Strengths of Articles of Confederations
-state's rights (result of stronger fear of a tyrannical leader)
-confederation of states with equal voice in Congress
-congress had power to make war and peace, sign treaties; raise an army and navy; print money, and set up a postal system
Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
-no federal leader to lead the country)
-no national taxes (no ability to gain national revenue to pay for national interests)
-no federal court system (no ability to settle disputes between states)
-lack of strong federal government
-no power to regulate commerce
-limited military = no protection
Grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence
-Taxation without representation
-King had absolute power
-Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King
-Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops
-Homes were searched without warrants
-No trial by jury of peers
Grievances Addressed in the U.S. Constitution
-All states have representation in Congress, which sets taxes
-Congress has the power to override Presidential veto
-1st Amendment -freedom of speech
-3rd Amendment -no quartering of troops
-4th Amendment -no unwarranted search and seizure
-7th Amendment -trial by jury
Limited Government
-government is restricted in what it may do
-the Constitution and laws set the limits of those in power
-philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people
Check and Balances
-system that does not allow any one branch of the government to have too much power
-Example: President can veto laws passed by Congress but Congress can override the veto
-the distribution of power between a federal government and the states within a union
-in the Constitution, certain powers are only given to states, others only to the federal government, and others are shared powers
Separation of Power in Constitution
-Legislative Branch: known as Congress made up of a House of Representatives and Senate
-Executive Branch: known as the President
-Judicial Branch: known as the Supreme Court
Popular Sovereignty
-political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government
-power is received from the people
-people express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Individual rights
-protected by Bill of Rights in Constitution
-economic, political and personal rights
Principles Reflected on the U.S. Constitution
-Limited government
-Checks and balances
-Separation of powers
-Popular sovereignty
-Individual rights
Purpose & Process of Amending the U.S. Constitution
-Purpose: the Constitution can be changed when it is deemed necessary by the people
-Process: proposal by Congress or by a state convention
-ratification can occur in the State Legislatures or in a state convention
George Mason
-leader of the Anti-Federalists
-served as a delegate for Virginia at the Constitutional Convention
Origin of Judicial Review
-originated from the ruling on Marbury v. Madison
-Supreme Court Justice John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court's (Judicial Branch) duty is to interpret the law according to the U.S. Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland
-Maryland wanted to tax its branch of the national bank
-Decision: States cannot claim to have power over the federal government
-Significance: Federal government is upheld as the supreme law of the land
Gibbons v. Ogden
-Steamship owners fought over shipping rights on Hudson River in both New York and New Jersey
-Decision: only the federal government has the power to regulate interstate commerce
-Significance: Federal government's power is reinforced
Dred Scott v. Sanford
-denied citizenship of slaves
-slaves were property
-made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional because it limited areas allowed for slavery
Unalienable rights
-fundamental rights or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally, instead of by the law
-For example, in the Declaration of Independence these rights are life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
1st Amendment
-freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly
2nd Amendment
-right to bear arms
3rd Amendment
-no quartering of troops during times of peace
4th Amendment
-prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures
5th Amendment
-right to due process
-right not to be tried for the same crime twice (double jeopardy)
-right not to testify against yourself
6th Amendment
-right to speedy public trial
7th Amendment
-right to trial by jury in civil trials
8th Amendment
-right not to have excessive bail and/or punishment
9th Amendment
-rights of the people
10th Amendment
-rights to the states
Examples of Responsible Citizenship
-obeying rules and laws
-voting for elected officials
-serving on juries
Naturalized Citizen
-a person of foreign birth who is granted full citizenship
-if a person is not a U.S. citizen, they may be eligible to become a citizen through the process of Naturalization
Founding Fathers
-individuals who played a major role in declaring independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution
-Example: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson
-relates to the involvement in a community
-those with civic virtue go a step beyond their obligations by taking an active role in improving the community and the experiences of other members of the community
George Washington
-first President
-was Commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War
-served as President of the Philadelphia Convention
-model of civic virtue
Civil Disobedience
-process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or nation when laws are considered unjust
Boston Tea Party
-protest led by the Sons of Liberty in which they dumped the British tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act passed by parliament
-this was an example of civil disobedience
Henry David Thoreau
-he refused to pay taxes because he did not want to support a government that allowed slavery and fought a war with Mexico
-wrote the essay "Civil Disobedience"
-urged people to challenge the laws they considered unjust
-colonists who remained loyal to the British monarchy and disagreed with the Declaration of Independence
-colonists who favored separating from Britain and becoming their own independent nation
-colonists who remained neutral, who chose not to take sides
Importance of Free Speech and Press
-allow for protection of individual rights
-freedom to express information, ideas, and opinions that are free of government restrictions based on content
Compromise of 1877
-informal compromise between the Republicans and Democrats in Congress
-included measures to appease the south
-these measures were the removal of all federal troops from the southern states, appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes' Administration, construction of a 2nd transcontinental railroad, and legislation to help industrialize the south
Leadership Qualities
-honesty, courage, ability to inspire others, and thoughtfulness
-these qualities were exhibited by Abraham Lincoln, John Marshall, George Washington, and others U.S. leaders
John Marshall
-appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Adams
-set precedent of Judicial Review in the court case of Marbury v. Madison, establishing the Supreme Court authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
Frederick Douglass
-leading African American abolitionist
-orator and writer
Stonewall Jackson
-Confederate General in the Civil War
-led troops in the 1st and 2nd Battles of Bull Run and Antietam
Susan B. Anthony
-key spokesperson for the 19th century women's suffrage movement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-leader of the 19th century women's suffrage movement
-called for the 1st convention of women's movement
Ethnic Groups that Settled in the U.S.
-Dutch (New York) -economic reasons
-Swedes (Delaware) -economic reasons
-English -religious and political freedom
Racial Groups that Settled in the U.S.
-Chinese and more European immigrants came in the Manifest Destiny era
-these groups created the growth of new and older cities; and brought new customs and traditions
-helped John Smith and the European settlers in Virginia
Anne Hutchinson
-led Bible studies against the orders of church leaders
Contributions of Women to America Society
-politically, women began the fight for suffrage
-socially, they allowed women to be successful in other fields
-economically, they fought for worker's right and were able to get a 10-hour day
Historical Development of the Abolitionist Movement
-during the 1700's most Northern states outlawed slavery
-then Congress banned the importation of African slaves and demand began to end slavery
-after, abolitionists grew in number and abolitionist leaders Frederick Douglas and Sojourner Truth began to speak out across the nation
-also, the Underground Railroad began to make an impact and the women's movement joined in
Educational Reform
-allowed public education by opening public schools primarily in the North, as well as private grade schools and colleges by churches and other groups
Temperance Movement
-organized societies worked at trying to stop the drinking of alcohol
-some states passed laws that made it illegal to sell alcohol
Women's Rights Movement
-groups that fought for better working conditions for women
-were able to pass a federal law that ordered a 10-hour working day
Prison Reform
-pushed for separate jails for women, men, and children
-called for the mission of prisons to be about rehabilitation
Care of the Disabled Reform
-allowed for the building of new hospitals for the mentally ill, deaf, and blind
Development of Religious Freedom
-In 1620, Plymouth Colony is established with a self-governing church (churches were closely tied with the state government)
-When Roger Williams founded Rhode Island he separated the church and state
-Later William Penn's frame of government guaranteed religious freedom to all settlers in Pennsylvania
-The Toleration Acts also allowed freedom to worship
-Finally, the Bill of Rights guaranteed freedom of religion
Religious Motivation for Immigration
-Protestant Revolution in Europe brought many religious groups to the colonies
-First Great Awakening
-Second Great Awakening
Impact of the 1st Amendment
-Americans have the right to worship however they choose
-The government does not have the right to interfere with religious beliefs
-separation of church and state
-During the 2nd Great Awakening, preachers were able to travel around cities hosting revival meetings.
-an American literary, political, and philosophical movement in the early 19th century
-major figures include Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman
-critics of this movement included Nathaniel Hawthorn, author of "The Scarlet Letter," and Edgar Allan Poe
John James Audubon
-drew American wildlife
Hudson River School Artists
-their paintings depict the American landscape and reflect the discovery, exploration, and settlement of America
Battle Hymn of the Republic
-patriotic anthem
-became a popular Civil War song of the Union Army
Examples of American Art
-engraving by Paul Revere titled "The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5th 1770 by a Party of the 29th Regiment"
-"Declaration of Independence" painting by John Trumbull
-"Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States" painting
-"Portrait of George Washington"
-"American Progress" (manifest destiny)
Example of American Music
-"Yankee Doodle"
-gospel music
Fine Arts & Change in the American Way of Life
-educated population increases
-in order to purchase and participate in the fine arts, Americans have had to improve their financial abilities
The Impact of the Steamboat
-increased factory production and led to the growth of cities
-moved goods and people faster up and down rivers
The Impact of the Cotton Gin
-invented by Ely Whitney
-cotton cleaning process became more efficient
-allowed cotton farmers to move farther west to grow more cotton which drove Native Americans off their land
-increased cotton supply which created a larger work force (slaves)
-the cotton gin is an example of how industrialization changed life in the U.S.
The Impact of Interchangeable Parts
-allowed easy assembly of new devices
-efficient repair of existing devices
-increased productivity and efficiency of production
The Impact of the Bessemer Steel Process
-this process was the 1st inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel.
-it decreased the cost which allowed an increase in steel production and work force
The Impact of the Mechanical Reaper
-invented by Cyrus McCormick
-increased farm productivity by allowing farmers to grow and then harvest more grain with fewer people
-the mechanical reaper is an example of how industrialization changed life in the U.S.
Impact of Transportation Systems
-allow people and goods to move to urban areas in large numbers where there are markets, business opportunities, and jobs
-man made waterways used for travel and/or shipping
-The Erie Canal spurred the first great westward movement of American settlers, gave access to the rich land and resources west of the Appalachians and helped make New York the prominent commercial city in the U.S.
Transcontinental Railroad
-nation wide transportation network that united the Nation by connecting the Eastern coast with the Western coast
-allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances
-was used by immigrants to migrate west and form new settlements in western states
-transmitted electrical signals over wires from location to a location that translated it into a message
-enhanced communication abilities during the increased settlement of the west
Impact of Technological Innovations on Manufactured Goods
-goods were produced faster, cheaper, in a large number and standardized
-improved transportation and communication systems allowed goods to move faster and over farther distances
-factories were encouraged to hire low-skilled and low-waged workers
-the invention of the cotton gin expanded slavery
Valid Primary and Secondary Sources
computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, artifacts
Validity of a Source
this is determined by its language, corroboration with other sources and information about the author
Steps in Problem Solving
-identify a problem
-gather information
-list and consider options
-consider advantages and disadvantages
-choose and implement a solution
-evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
Decision Making Process
-identify a situation that requires a decision
-gather information
-identify options
-predict consequences
-take action to implement a decision