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Amsco Chapter 28 Terms
Terms in this set (92)
Election Of 1960
Nixon [Republican, stood up against Khrushchev in Kitchen debate, tough, former VP] VS. Kennedy [Wealthy, youthful, charismatic, MA senator, LBJ his VP running mate (got southern + northern votes] Television debates, religion was a factor [cities wanted Catholic Kennedy and rural wanted Protestant Nixon] Kennedy won by 100,000 votes
John F. Kennedy
Youngest President .New Frontier, Space Program, Providing for poor, Warren Commission, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis and was assassinated in Dallas, Texas by a gunshot and Lee Harvey Oswald was the murder
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view
Attorney general under JKF, his little brother
brought style, glamour, and an appreciation of the arts to the White House
Race To The Moon
JFK committed the nation to land on the moon by the end of the decade
Assassination In Dallas
November 22, 1963 JFK assassinated allegedly bu Lee Harvey Oswald. Sketchy af . Lots of conspiracy theories surround this
Earl Warren concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin. Today conspiracies surround this pointing to involvement by organized crime, Castro, the CIA, and the FBI. This marked the beginning of a loss of credibility in government
Set up by JFK, an organization that recruited young American volunteers to give technical aid to developing countries
Alliance For Progress
JFK organized this which promoted land reform and economic development in Latin America
Trade Expansion Act
1962 - JFK persuaded Congress to pass this, which authorized tariff reductions to the recently formed European Economic Community "common market" of Western European nations
Bay Of Pigs
Refugees from Cuba escaped to the United States and the CIA has been training them to send them back to Cuba to start a revolution and overthrow Castro. When they were sent back they were given weapons and told air support would be coming. Kennedy pulled out at the last second and sent no air support. The mission was a failure and the United States was seen as weak.
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression. Famous speech by JFK to West Berlin people "Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put up a wall to keep our people in... As a free man, I take pride in the words, Ich bin ein Berliner [I am a Berliner]. Wall was symbol of Cold War until torn down in 89'
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 - Russians building missile launching sites in Cuba , these missiles could reach USA in minutes. Kennedy responded by setting a naval blockade of Cuba until weapons removed. Nuclear war was a threat if Cubans said no. Khrushchev backed down and agreed in return for Kennedy's pledge not to invade Cuba + remove some missiles from Turkey.
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Response to Cuban missile crisis. Soviet Union , US, and 100 other countries signed this which promised to end the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. First step in controlling the testing of nuclear arms was offset by arms race to developing missiles and warheads
President after JFK was killed, skilled politician who wanted to expand the social reforms of the New Deal. Persuaded Congress to pass 1) an expanded version of JFK's civil rights bill, and 2) JFK's proposal for an income tax cut. War on poverty
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
War On Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Michael Harrington, The Other America
Best selling book on poverty 1962, helped focus national attention on the 40 million Americans still living in poverty. LBJ responded to this with his "War on Poverty"
Election Of 1964
Goldwater alienated people and was believed to be too conservative. He was perceived as an extremist who advocated the use of nuclear weapons if needed to win the war in Vietnam. LBJ won by the largest margin ever. Democrats now controlled the white house, + both houses of Congress. LBJ used tv ads to paint Goldwater as an extremist who would blow up and kill kids bc of his actions i.e. Daisy + Ice cream ads
Conservative Republican who advocated ending the welfare state. Ran for office in 1964 and lost to LBJ
Great Society Programs
1) Provided health insurance for all people 65 and older
2) Provided funds to states to pay for medical care for the poor and disabled
Elementary & Secondary Education Act
1965 - Great Society Program
- Provided federal funds to poor school districts; funds for special education programs; + funds to expand Head Start, an early education program
1965 - Great Society Program
- Abolished discriminatory quotas based on national origins
National Foundation On The Arts & Humanities
Great Society Program
- Provided federal funding for the arts and for creative and scholarly projects
DOT & HUD
Great Society , LBJ created two new cabinet departments
1) The Department of Transportation
2) The Department of Housing and Urban Development
Ralph Nader, Unsafe At Any Speed
in response to this book, Congress passed regulations of the automobile industry that would save hundreds of lives in the following years
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
Congress responded to her expose of pesticides by enacting clean air and water laws
Lady Bird Johnson
LBJ's wife / first lady. Contributed to improving the environment with her Beautify America Campaign , which resulted in the Highway Beautification Act that removed billboards from federal roads
Civil Rights Act Of 1964
made segregation illegal in all public facilities, including hotels and restaurants, gave the fed govt. additional powers to enforce school desegregation. Also set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commision
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Set up by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, worked to end discrimination in employment on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin
Ratified in 1964, abolished the practice of collection a poll tax, one of the measures that had kept poor people from polling
Voting Rights Act Of 1965
Selma killings + brutality against the voting rights marches led my MLK Jr. led LBJ to pass this which ended literacy test and provided federal registrars in area where blacks were kept from voting. First time AA's in the deep south could vote since the Reconstruction era almost 100 years before
1962, young AA air force veteran attempted to enroll in the University of Mississippi. Federal court guaranteed his right to attend. Supporting Meredith, JFK sent 400 federal marshals + 300 troops to control the mob violence and protect Meredith's right to attend class
This Governor tried to stop an AA student from entering the University of Alabama. JFK sent troops to the scene, and the student was admitted
Martin Luther King Jr.
leader of the civil rights movement, committed to nonviolent protests against segregation. He and some of his followers were jailed for an "illegal" march in Birmingham, Alabama. In jail he wrote an essay arguing the call to action in the movement in order to restore democracy and natural rights in America. The essay convinced JFK to support a tougher civil rights bill
March On Washington
1963 - MLK Jr. led one of the most successful + largest demonstrations in history. Peaceful march on Washington in support of the civil rights bill. MLK Jr. gave his "I Have a Dream" speech here which appealed to the end of racial prejudice
"I Have A Dream" Speech
A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the demonstration of freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960's to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination against African-Americans
March To Montgomery
Bloody Sunday, March from Selma to Montgomery Alabama for voter registration; they were met with beatings + tear gas in what became known as "Bloody Sunday." TV showed this and marked a turning point in civil rights movement. LBJ sent federal troops to protect King + marched in an attempt to petition the state government. Congress passed the Voting rights Acts of 1965 bc of this
Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world.
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary meet violence with violence, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
influenced by Malcolm X, Organized by MLK challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
Congress Of Racial Equality
(CORE) Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its "freedom rides," bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961, influenced later by Malcolm X
In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
organized by Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, and other militants as a revolutionary socialist movement advocating self-rule for American blacks
Watts Riots, Race Riots
In 1965, in the Watts section of Los Angeles, a riot broke out. This was the result of a white police officer striking a black bystander during a protest. This triggers a week of violence and anger revealing the resentment blacks felt toward treatment toward them.
De Facto Segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Federal Investigation of the race riots, concluded that racism and segregation were chiefly responsible and that the US was becoming "two societies, one black, one white - separate and unequal."
1968 - shot and killed by a white man on a hotel balcony in Memphis, Tennessee. Riots errupted
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism, and protect individual rights
Mapp v. Ohio
1961 - ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused
Gideon v. Wainwright
1963 - required that state courts provide counsel [services of an attorney] to indigent [poor] defendants
Escobedo v. Illinois
1964: required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent
Miranda v. Arizona
1966: extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by police
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people. Favored rural areas and hurt cities
Baker v. Carr
Declared reapportionment unconstitutional, court declared "one man, one vote"
"One Man, One Vote"
Declared in Baker v. Carr ; meant that election districts would have to be withdrawn to provide equal representation for all citizens
Yates v. U.S.
1957: said that the 1st Amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, even y Communists, unless it was a "clear and present danger" to the safety of the country.
Separation Of Church & State
The Warren Court banned religious activities sponsored by public schools seeing that church and state have no place to intermingle or rule one another. 1st amendment right to practice or not practice a religion
Engel v. Vitale
1962: Ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the 1st Amendment's provision for separation of church and state
Griswold v. Connecticut
1965: Ruled that, in recognition of a citizen's right to privacy, a state could not prohibit the use of contraceptives by adults. [This privacy case provided the foundation for later cases establishing a woman's right to an abortion.]
Privacy & Contraceptives
Griswold v. Connecticut protected a woman's rights to these
Students For A Democratic Society
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
most radical string of the SDS, embraced violence + vandalism in their attacks on American institution. These people left the SDS and the New Left group to be discredited through the eyes of the American public
Young americans in 60s who rejected conventional customs & mainstream culture. "Hippies" "Flower children" Hippies were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society. The counterculture's excesses + the economic uncertainties of the times led to its demise in the 1970s
NY music festival, 1969, showed counterculture
regarded by some as the father of the scientific study of human sexuality. Published a series of reports which described common sexual behaviors in the US.
A social outlook that challenges traditional codes of behaviour related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships. The phenomenon took place throughout the Western world from the 1960s into the 1970s. Premarital sex, contraception, abortion, homosexuality. AIDs in the 1980's
Movement for women fueled by
-The Feminine Mystique
-National Organization for Women
-Equal Pay Act of 1963
-Civil Rights Act of 1964
-Equal Rights Amendment
Betty Friedan; The Feminine Mystique
book that gave the women's movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers in addition to filling the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker
National Organization For Women
Friedan [writer of fem mystique] helped formed this which adopted the activist tactics of other civil rights movements to secure equal treatment of women, especially for job opportunities
Equal Pay Act
1963 - anti-discriminatory act passed to help women
Equal Rights Amendment
major feminist win, Congress passed this. Stated "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Was never ratified
JFK increased the number of these , who trained the South Vietnamese army + guarded weapons and facilities. Helped created "strategic hamlets" [fortified villages]
Fall Of Diem
US ally in South Vietnam, Ngo Dihn Diem, was not popular . Lost support of the peasants in the countryside. Monks set themselves on fire to protest him. Diem killed
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
August, 1964 - After the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was fired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.
Escalation Of Troops
LBJ continued a step-by-step escalation of US involvement in the war, he hoped to win a war of attrition. At the war's peak there was 540,000 US troops in Vietnam
commander of US forces in Vietnam, assured the American public that he could see "light at the end of the tunnel." aka push for the end of the war / see it through
misinformation from the military + civilian leaders , LBJ's reluctance to speak honestly w/ the American people about the cost and scope of the war created what the media called
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war
Hawks & Doves
Hawks are people who supported the war's goal, and Doves were people who opposed the war.
March 31, 1968, LBJ went on TV and told people he would limit the bombing of North Vietnam and negotiate peace. He then surprised everyone and announced he would not be running for reelection
1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.
Attorney General under his brother, JFK, he was assassinated in June 1968 while campaigning for the Democratic party nomination.
Killed by a young Arab nationalist who opposed Kennedy's support for Israel
The democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968. He was LBJ's vice president, and was supportive of his Vietnam policies. This support split the Democratic party, allowing Nixon to win the election for the Republicans.
Where 10,000 antiwar protesters gathered outside as [police riot happened] Hubert Humphrey was decided upon as the Democratic candidate in 1968.
Growing hostility of many whites to federal desegregation, antiwar protests, and race riots made Gov. George Wallace of Alabama a perf candidate for them.
1st politician in the late 20th century to marshal general resentment against the Washington establishment [liberals]
He announced he candidacy and became the front-runner of the Republican party, to win Southern votes he has Spiro Agnew be his VP. He was a "hawk" for the Vietnam war and ran with the slogans of "peace with honor" and "law and order"
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