Chapter 14: Thermal Energy + Heat
Terms in this set (60)
What is temperature?
is a measure of the average Kinetic Energy of the INDIVIDUAL particles
How do you measure temperature?
with a thermometer
What are the three different types of temperature scales?
1. Fahrenheit Scale
2. Celsius Scale
3. Kelvin Scale
What is the Fahrenheit Scale?
it is most common in the United States
What is the Freezing Point of water on the Fahrenheit Scale?
32 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the boiling point of water on the Fahrenheit Scale?
212 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the Celsius Scale?
is the most common in almost every other country ( apart from the U.S. )
What is the Freezing point of water on the Celsius Scale?
0 degrees Celsius
What is the boiling point of water on the Celsius Scale?
100 degrees Celsius
What is the Kelvin Scale?
most commonly used in Physical Science
Which of the 3 different types of scales does not use a degrees sign?
the Kelvin Scale
What is the Freezing point of water on the Kelvin Scale?
What is the boiling point of water on the Kelvin Scale?
What is Absolute Zero?
is 0 on the Kelvin Scale which = - 273 degrees Celsius
What is Thermal Energy?
the total energy of all the particles in an object
What is the unit of measurement for Thermal Energy?
Joules ( J )
What happens the more particles an object has at a given temperature ?
the more particles an object has at a given temperature the more thermal energy it has
What is Heat?
is thermal energy moving from a warmer object to a cooler one
What si the unit of measurement for Heat?
Joules ( J )
What is Specific Heat?
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 Kilogram of a material by 1 Kelvin
What is an example of Specific Heat?
the ocean water and sand
Why is the sand on the beach hotter than the water if they are both being heated by the sun at the same temperature?
the water requires more heat to raise its temperature than sand does
What is the formula to calculate the Change In Energy?
Change In Energy = Mass x Specific Heat x Change in Temperature
What are the 3 ways heat can be transferred?
What is conduction?
heat is transferred from one particle of matter to another without the movement of the matter ( touching )
What is an example of conduction?
pot on a stove
What is convection?
heat is transferred by the movement of currents within a fluid
What is an example of convection?
a pot of water on stove
What is a convection current?
a current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of cooled fluid
Explain the pot of water on a stove example to explain a convection current
pot of water: water at the bottom gets heated and becomes less dense and goes to the top, the water on the top gets more dense and goes to the bottom
What is Radiation?
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
What is an example of radiation?
the sun heating and lighting our earth
What does radiation not require to transfer thermal energy?
radiation does not require matter to transfer thermal energy
How does heat always move?
heat always flows from the warmer object to the cooler one
What is a conductor?
a material that conducts heat well
What are examples of good conductors?
tiles and metals
What is an insulator?
a material that does not conduct heat well
What are examples of insulators?
carpet, wood, wool, paper, gases in the air, double pane window
What are the 3 states of matter and describe each of them?
1. liquid-definite volume but no definite shape
2. solid- definite shape and volume
3. gas- no definite shape or volume
What is the definition for Changes Of State?
the physical change from 1 state of matter to another
When can matter change from one state to another?
matter can change from one state to another when thermal energy is absorbed or released (look at chart in the textbook, it will be on the test *know why it has horizontal lines)
solid to a liquid, it absorbs thermal energy
what is the melting point?
the temperature at which something melts
liquid to solid, loses thermal energy
what is the freezing point?
temp at which something freezes
what is vaporization?
liquid to gas , gaining thermal energy
what are the 2 types of vaporization?
what is evaporation and give an example?
vaporization that takes place on the surface ex. sweating
what is boiling?
vaporization that occurs throughout the whole substance
what is condensation
gas back down to a liquid, losing thermal energy
what is Thermal Expansion?
the expanding of matter when it is heated
What happens as the thermal energy of matter increases in thermal expansion?
as the thermal energy of matter increases, the particles spread out and the substance expands ex. cavity
What is a heat engine?
the transformation of thermal energy to mechanical energy requires a device called a heat engine
What are External Combustion Engines?
engines that burn fuel outside the engine ex. steam engine
What is an Internal Combustion Engine?
engines that burn fuel in cylinders inside the engine
What is a stroke in an Internal Combustion Engines?
each up and down movement by a piston is called a stroke
What is a refrigerator?
is a device that transfers thermal energy from inside the refrigerator to the room outside. In doing so the refrigerator transfers thermal energy from a cool area to a warm area
What does a refrigerator require?
requires a refrigerant which absorbs and releases heat
What substance has the highest specific heat?
Can convection currents happen in the air ( air is a fluid ) that is in your house
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