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Chapter 22 Heredity and How traits change
Terms in this set (83)
from parent to offspring
How are traits inherited?
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
the study of how traits pass from parents to offspring
coiled strands of DNA found in the nucleus of a cell
sections of DNA that contains information about a specific trait
a gene with different information for a trait
What are the two ways that organisms pass its traits to it offspring?
offspring receive half their genes from an egg cell and the other half from a sperm cell
one organism make a copy of it's genes and itself
how many pairs of chromosome do humans have?
what do genes on chromosome control?
What are the two types of traits?
traits from the genes of DNA
traits that are learned by an organism
what is a birds size an example of?
what is a birds song an example of ?
To understand how traits are inherited
To learn about development and disease
To determine how organisms are related and if they share a common ancestor
Why do Scientist study genetics?
genes control how an _____________ _____________
problems with genes can result in ___________
the selection and breeding of organisms for desired traits
who experimented with pea plants in 1856?
green and yellow
what kind of pod plants did Gregor Mendal Experiment with when he crossed true-breeding plants?
hybrid offspring all with green pods
what did Gregor Mendal find out when he crossed true-breeding plants of green and yellow?
receive different genetic info for a trait from each parent
produced green pods or yellow pods (3:1)
What did Gregor Mendal find out when he crossed two hybrid green pod plants together?
a genetic factor that blocks another genetic factor
what kind of letter is shown for a dominant trait?
in Gregor Mendals experiment what pod plant was dominant?
a genetic factor is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor
what kind of letter is shown for a recessive trait?
in Gregor Mendals experiment what pod plant was recessive?
the alleles of all the genes on an organisms chromosomes
how the traits appear or are expressed
when an organisms genotypes has two different alleles for a trait
when an organism genotype has two identical alleles for a trait
What does this represent?
What does this represent?
GG or gg
Mendel's work was mostly forgotten until ______
scientist confirmed that Mendel's dominant and recessive factors were ______
predictions and they do not guarantee outcomes
a cross between two individuals that are hybrids for one trait
shows the probability of all possible genotype and phenotype of offspring
Law of separation
the 2 alleles for a characteristics separate when gametes
Law of independent assortment
the alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during gamete formation
when an offspring's phenotype is a combination of it's parents genotypes
when both alleles can be independently observed in a phenotype
a gene that has more than two alleles
when the allele for a trait is on an X and Y chromosome
what do sex chromosomes determine?
what sex chromosome does XY represent?
what sex chromosome does XX represent?
occurs when multiple genes determine the phenotypes of a trait
what is human height controlled by ?
____________ tend to be more common in some families than others
diagram that shows genetic traits that were inherited by members of a family
if a trait has a genetic link
what do doctors use pedigrees to determine?
any permanent chance in the sequence of DNA in a gene of chromosome of a cell
__________ are often the result of a mutation of one or more genes
appearance or function
mutation can cause change in ____________ or ___________ of an organism
the genetic material of an organism is modified by intersecting DNA from another organism
slight difference in inherited traits among individuals in a population
the process by which individuals with variations that help them survive in their environment live longer, compete better, and reproduce more than those without these variations
an inherited trait that increases an organisms chance of surviving an reproducing in a particular environment
What are the 3 types of Adaptations?
involve physical characteristics such as color and shape
involve internal systems that affect an organisms physiology or biochemistry
involve the ways an organism behaves and acts
when an animal migrate for food and suitable temperatures to survive and reproduce what is that an example of ?
when an Alpine snowball flower had adapted to a short growing season what is that an example of ?
what is a flap of skin on a flying squirrel an example of ?
what is smaller leaves of desert plants an example of ?
what is a modern example of a change overtime?
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can cause ______________
when the last individual of a species dies
hunted too much
invasive species introduced
what are the three reasons for extinction ?
branch of biology that studies why many species are in trouble and what can be done to save them
introduced female panthers from Texas into Florida to increase the population
When Florida panthers were in danger of extinction what did scientist do ?
What is this an example of ?
what is this an example of ?
blood type in humans is an example of
can be structural functional or behavioral
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