50 terms

Psychology

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Psychology
Study of the mind, mental processes and behaviour
4 Main Fields of Psychology
Behaviourism, humanism, psychoanalysis, cognitive
Behavioural Psychology
Conducting experiments and gathering data to understand observable behaviours and phenomena
Classical Conditioning
Type of learning to associate stimuli and anticipate events, ex. Pavlov's dogs
Operant Conditioning
Type of learning that uses rewards and punishments, ex. B.F. Skinner's rats
Psychoanalysis
Analyzing our inner thoughts and feelings and unlocking the unconscious mind, ex. Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung
Conscious Mind
Thoughts we are aware of, ex. feelings, present perceptions, memories
Unconscious Mind
Thoughts we are unaware of, ex. drives, instincts, trauma
Preconscious Mind
Thoughts and memories that aren't immediately conscious but can be brought to mind
Ego
Conscious- "the referee", rational thinking
Id
Unconscious- instincts, primitive feelings
Superego
Part conscious, mostly unconscious- moral thoughts
Carl Jung
Student of Freud who created concept of "collective unconscious" and archetypes
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization", being a part of helping yourself
Humanism
Belief that the patient should be involved in recovery. Based on theory that everyone has potential to be a good person and contribute to society.
Viktor Frankl
Developed logotherapy after experiencing the holocaust to help patients find meaning/purpose in life without medical help.
Cognitive Psychology
Examines the mental processes in the brain to determine how we think, learn, perceive and remember.
Albert Bandura
Bobo doll experiment. Children learn by imitation and aggression is learnt and should be stopped before adulthood.
Defence Mechanisms
A way for the ego to protect the conscious mind from experiencing unpleasant feelings or thoughts
Elizabeth Loftus
Lost in mall experiment. False memories: repressed memories created through power of suggestion.
Rationalization
Excuse we invent to explain a failure, loss, error or bad behaviour
Displacement
When we lash out at someone not involved because we have suppressed anger or frustration from an earlier situation.
Projection
When we see negative traits and feelings in other people that we see in ourselves but cannot openly admit
Denial
When reality is too unpleasant so we ignore it.
Repression
When we push unpleasant urges or thoughts out of our conscious mind.
Regression
When problems seem too big to handle, we may go back to behaviour from earlier in life like sulking or having tantrums.
Reaction Formation
Changing an unacceptable feeling or impulse into its opposite.
Sublimation
Changing an unacceptable feeling or thought into one that's socially acceptable.
Nature vs Nurture
A dual concept- whether behaviour is caused by genetic inheritance or environmental influences/how you were raised, one of the oldest issues debated by psychologists.
Teenage Brain
The amygdala and prefrontal cortex go through dramatic change which affect risk taking, decision making, emotions, sleep habits, impulse, sex
Sensation
Process that activates our sense receptors, we transmit signals from these senses to our brain
Perception
Process that allows us to select, organize and interpret sensory signals in the brain
1)Selecting: name in a noisy environment
2)Organizing: who the voice belongs to
3)Interpreting: that person wants my attention
Illusions
We group patterns and shapes in order to recognize them
Autism
A neurodevelopment disorder that occurs on a spectrum and affects one's social communication, 1 in 68, more prevalent in boys
Stigma
Preconceived negative opinion or thought on someone or something, makes it difficult for people to talk about it or get help
Stereotype
A generalization of a group of people, commonly held public belief
Prejudice
A prejudgement or assumption of something/someone without knowledge
Discrimination
Taking negative action on your prejudice to belittle someone
Structural Discrimination
When social environments/situations expose people to negative things
Internalized Discrimination
What you grew up thinking about certain groups or people
Mood Disorders
Caused by chemical imbalances, consistent change in mood, ex. Major Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Cycle of going through depressed, normal and mania moods
Psychosis
Active state of experiencing hallucinations, delusions, can be organic (tumour) or chemically induced (drugs) or both
Schizophrenia
Mental disturbance that shuts down parts of brain, causes delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behaviour
PTSD
Constantly experiencing/imagining a traumatic event that previously happened, extreme anxiety in that situation, stems from amygdala
Phobias
Significant and persistent fear, causes extreme anxiety and affects daily life
Personality Disorders
Pattern of behaviour that's not the social norm causing long term difficulties ex. Antisocial Personality Disorder
Eating Disorders
Obsession with food, weight or appearance, ex. Anorexia, Bulimia
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Indulgence in plastic surgery, ex. Michael Jackson
Ethical Guidelines in Psychology
1) Responsible Caring
2) Integrity of Relationships
3) Responsibility to Society
4) Respect for the Dignity of Persons

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