Why are the 1920s called the "New Era"?
- New forms of economic organization
- New "American" culture distinguished
- New approaches to public policy
What were the reasons the US experienced an economic boom in the 1920s?
- European economy was weak
- New technologies
How did the industries of the 1920s improve efficiency in production?
Through use of the assembly line
How did US industrial leaders attempt to curb competition? What did they fear?
With consolidation and cooperation through trade associations due to a fear of overproduction and recessions due to rapid expansion
What were the problems with wealth distribution, purchasing power and wages in the 1920s?
- Prosperity was not universal
- 40% of American families were poor
- Wages rose but standard of living remained at the minimum level
What was "welfare capitalism"?
Government assistance necessary to stop labor union participation. Workers were offered shorter working weeks, higher wages (but barely considerable), paid vacations, and retirement pensions.
Were African Americans permitted to join unions associated with the American Federation of Labor?
Which ethnic group experiencd riots and attempts at exclusion in California in the late 1920s and early 1930s?
What were the results of the large growth in agricultural production?
- hybrid corn
- demand did NOT increase as fast as production
- decline in food prices
- decrease in farmers' incomes
- loss of farm ownership by most farmers
What did "parity", the price raising scheme that dominated the agrarian sector, require?
prices for agricultural goods to be based on average price of crops before WWI
What were the terms of the proposed McNary-Haugen Bill? How would the government help farmers achieve parity?
The government would help farmers achieve parity by paying farmers not to grow in excess of demand and the government would lease farmers' land.
What did the term "consumer society" mean and why was this term used for the United States during the 1920s?
America is a "consumer society" because Americans bought more pleasurable items than items they needed.
What did theological modernists teach their followers about interpreting the Bible literally?
Modernists tought the theory of evolution to their students. This was frowned upon by fundamentalists.
What were the characteristics of employed women in the 1920s?
- Employed women worked "pink collar" jobs mostly.
- There was about 15% of women who were employed.
- They were generally underpaid.
What results did effect the declining birth rate, the introduction of labor-saving devices, and the greater acceptability of liberated life styles of the 1920s have on women?
- manifest in hair, dress, speech, and behavior
- divorce and frustration
What was the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921 and why did the passage of this act represent a significant legislative triumph for feminist activities?
Women could now recieve federal funds for prenatal care and had access to child health care programs
What were some of the changes in the way youths identified themselves after World War I?
Students began to think of themselves in relation with their peers rather than their families.
What did the artists and intellectuals of the "lost generation" criticize?
They criticized democracy, fundamentalists, and material success.
Who were in the group called the "debunkers" and why did they ridicule American society?
H.L. Mencken, Sinclair Lewis, and F. Scott Fitzgerald; They ridiculed belief in democracy, fundamentalist religion, and material success because they
What movements resulted from the traditional backlash against the secular culture of the "New Era"?
Political ideas of black nationalism
What were some of the results of the "noble experiment" of prohibition?
- ratification of the 18th Amendment
- reduction of drinking in certain parts of the country, especially among rural Protestant Americans
- Volstead Act
- rise of organized crime (Ex.) speakeasies
Which groups and what ideas did the revived KKK of the 1920s oppose?
The KKK opposed blacks, Catholics, Jews, foreigners, and suspected Communists.
What were the results of the Scopes "Monkey" trial? How could the modernists consider that they had won a victory?
Scopes was convicted but then his conviction was overturned after being forced to admit that their was no single interpreatation of Scripture.
What were some of the similarities between Presidents Coolidge and Harding?
They were both very passive Republicans who were very unfamiliar with government duties.
Which two administrative figures were most active in using government policy to help business and industry in the 1920s?
What were some of Hoover's ideas about business before his election in 1928?
He believed in trade associations and associationalism.
What major event that ended the "New Era" happened less than one year after Hoover's inauguration?
The stock market crash in October 1929
Which European country was required to pay the reparations bill for the cost of World War I?
What were the economic results of the Dawes Plan of 1924?
Loans to Germany, Germany to Allies, Allies to US; Finland was the only nation to pay its war debt in full.