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Terms in this set (47)
Communist dictator of the Soviet Union.
Characteristic of a political system in which the government exercises complete control over its citizens' lives.
Fascist dictator of Italy.
A political philosophy that advocates a strong, centralized, nationalistic government headed by a powerful dictator.
Nazi dictator of Germany.
The political philosophy-based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansionism-that Adolf Hitler put into practice in Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Militarism in Japan
Military leaders took over Japan and believed they needed more land and resources. Japan attacked Manchuria, a province of China, in 1931. The League of Nations protested, but Japan left the League and kept Manchuria.
Aggression in Europe and Africa
Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland and rebuilt the German army. These acts broke the Versailles Treaty. Mussolini captured the African nation of Ethiopia. Haile Selassie, the leader of Ethiopia, asked for help and the League of Nations did nothing.
Fascist dictator of Spain.
In opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries.
A series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent U.S. arms sales and loans to nations at war.
A majority of Austria's six million people were German-speaking and favored unification with Germany. In March 1938, German troops marched into Austria. They met no opposition. Germany announced an Anschluss, or union, with Austria.
Hitler claimed that Czechs were mistreating the German-speaking people in the Sudetenland. The leaders of France and Hitler met with Hitler in Munich, Germany. Hitler promised that the Sudetenland would be his last demand. France, Britain, and Germany signed the Munich Pact in September 1938. It gave the Sudetenland to Germany.
Prime minister of Great Britain before World War II.
Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.
The granting of concessions to a hostile power in order to keep the peace.
An agreement in which two nations promise not to go to war with each other.
A sudden, massive attack with combined air and ground forces, intended to achieve a quick victory.
For the next few months after Germany invaded Poland, not much happened. French and British troops gathered on the French border. German troops also waited.
A system of fortifications built along France's eastern border.
Fall of France
Germany attacked France in May 1940. The Italians attacked France from the south. France surrendered quickly in June 1940. The Germans occupied the northern part of France while a Nazi-controlled puppet government, called the Vichy government, ruled the southern part of France.
Charles de Gaulle
Head of the French government in exile in England.
Battle of Britain
Germany conducted air raids over England. They bombed London night after night in August 1940. The British air force (RAF) defended Britain against these attacks. They used a new technology called radar, and shot down hundreds of German planes. Churchill declared that Britain would not surrender and Hitler gave up the idea of invading Britain.
The systematic murder of 11 million Jews and other people by the Nazis before and during World War II.
In 1935, new laws took away Jews' civil rights and their property. Jews were forced to wear yellow stars of David on their clothing.
A name given to the night of November 9, 1938, when gangs of Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues in Germany.
Once war broke out in Europe, Americans said they feared that refugees would be enemy agents. The Coast Guard even turned away a ship carrying refugees who had emigration papers for the United States. Three-quarters of the passengers were killed by the Nazis after the ship was forced to return to Europe.
A policy of genocide based on the Nazi belief that Aryans were a superior people and that their strength and racial purity must be preserved.
The deliberate and systematic extermination of a particular racial, national, or religious group.
Nazi death squads who rounded up Jews-men, women, children, and babies-and shot them on the spot.
Segregated Jewish areas where they were made to work in factories or left to starve.
A prison camp operated by Nazi Germany in which Jews and other groups considered to be enemies of Adolf Hitler were starved while doing slave labor or were murdered.
Six million Jews died in death camps and Nazi massacres. Prisoners were gassed, shot, hanged, or injected with poison. Others died as a result of horrible medical experiments carried out by camp doctors.
The largest of the death camps.
Won the Nobel Peace Prize and a survivor of Auschwitz. He wrote memorably about his concentration camp experiences and the need to prevent such genocide from ever happening again.
Cash and Carry
This provision allowed Britain and France to buy and transport American arms. Congress passed this new Neutrality Act in November 1939.
Germany, Italy, and Japan-that opposed the Allies in World War II.
Selective Training and Service Act
Congress passed the nation's first peacetime military draft where 16 million men between the ages of 21 and 35 were registered.
Election of 1940
Roosevelt won a third in 1940 against Wendell Wilkie. Both believed that the United States should help Britain, but also wanted to avoid getting involved in war.
A law enacted in 1941, that allowed the United States to ship arms and other supplies, without immediate payment, to nations fighting the Axis powers.
German Wolf Packs
Nazi submarines or U-boats that attacked and sank ships carrying arms across the Atlantic to Germany's enemies.
Declaration of principles in which the United States and Great Britain set forth their goals in opposing the Axis powers.
The group of nations-including Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States—that opposed the Axis powers.
Shoot on Sight
Roosevelt ordered the navy to shoot German submarines on sight after they had fired on a U.S. destroyer.
Prime minister of Japan during World War II.
In Japan, expansions had long dreamed of creating a huge empire. They began seizing Asian territory like Indochina held as colonies by European nations.
On December 7, 1941-during the peace talks—Japan attacked the main U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The Japanese crippled the U.S. Pacific fleet in one blow. Planes and ships were destroyed. Over 2,400 people were killed. On December 8, 1941, Roosevelt addressed Congress asking for a declaration of war against Japan.
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