Upgrade to remove ads
Psy 360- Exam #2 Smith
Terms in this set (49)
The process of assigning the cause of behavior to some internal characteristic, rather than to outside forces. When we explain the behavior of others we look for enduring internal attributions, such as personality traits.
♣ For example, we attribute the behavior of a person to their personality, motives or beliefs.
♣ If you ignore the situation a person is in, then you are drawing a strong internal attribution
Refers to interpreting someone's behavior as being caused by the situation that the individual is in For example, if Jacob's car tire is punctured he may attribute that to a hole in the road; by making attributions to the poor condition of the highway, he can make sense of the event without any discomfort that it may in reality have been the result of his bad driving.
The idea that we should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behavior if there are other causes present that would normally produce the opposite outcome.
Argument Principle Example with Muhammad Ali
How could his behavior be anything other than motivated by his strong religious principles. He had to give up so much to avoid the war. He is a peaceful and principle person.
The idea that we should assign reduced weight to a particular cause of behavior if there are other plausible causes that might have produced it.
Ex. A person who confesses under pressure.
Discouting Principle example with Muhammad Ali
Cannot be sure that he is motivated by strong religious principles. He fights for a living (hardly peaceful). Also, many famous people tried to avoid the war on religious grounds.
Fixed Ways of thinking about people that don't allow for individual variation.
A negative attitude directed towards people simply because they are members of a specific social group.
Is stereotyping a good or bad thing?
Not necessarily bad. Ex. Doctors are helpful, hardworking, intelligent, and wealthy.
Doesn't have to lead to prejudice and discrimination, but it certainly serves as its foundation.
A negative action towards members of specific social group
Not always caused by prejudice, but certainly strongly related.
Realistic Conflict Theory
The view that prejudice stems from direct competition between various groups over scarce and valued resources
Examples of Realistic Conflict Theory
Israelis and Palestinians both desire control over Jerusalem.
A zero sum game. One group's gain is the other group's loss.
As competition increases, groups begin to see each other in increasingly negative terms.
Social Identity Theory
Tajfel proposed that the groups which people belong to were an important source of pride and self-esteem.
In-group vs. Out-group
Patricia Devine's work on stereotypes. Internal Attributions
Patricia Devine's work on stereotypes External Attributions
Kelley's Covariation Principle
When deciding to attribute something to a person or situation, we rely on 3 types of data. C, D and C
Refers to what most people would do in a given situation
Refers to what an individual does in a given situation on different occasions.
Refers to what an individual does in different situations. Whether the behavior is unique to a particular situation or occurs in all situations.
Why is understanding the attribution process so important in terms of processing confessions?
♣ Confessions can lead to refusal to look at actual evidence showing the person is innocent
♣ Confessions carry more weight on the jury's decision due to the tendency to accept self-reports at face value (FAE)
♣ If confessions have high detail, it's even tougher for a jury to dismiss the false-confession
♣ False confessions can even corrupt other evidence found
Role of Self-Fulfilling Prophesy and Attribution Errors in the Case of Joe Dick
Ultimately, due to his compliant personality, he not only gave false confessions, but began to believe he actually committed the crimes
What role does the attribution process play in terms of increasing the biased processing of confessions?
How might self-fulfilling prophecy and attribution errors committed by the perceiver lead to internalized false confessions (as in the case of Joe Dick).
Categorize something by judging how similar the object is to our conception of the typical member of the category.
Ex. Ted Bundy was a good looking, nice guy. Didn't seem to be a serial killer, yet he was.
When things come to mind easily
Ex. After seeing several news reports about car thefts, you might make a judgment that vehicle theft is much more common than it really is in your area.
What are minimal groups and what can they tell us about the nature of prejudice?
Research shows that you might be less prejudiced than your parent's generation/much less than grandparents.
The Prentice-Dunn paradigm
Angry individuals seem to justify their prejudice. "I'm not a bad person, they insulted me!"
Minimal group paradigm
Occurs when you encounter a member of a stereotyped group or a stereotyped statement - this causes the stereotype for the group to be accessed from memory.
Not intentional proces.
Pops in mind without awareness.
Occurs with your awareness- as when you choose to disregard or ignore the stereotyped information that has been brought to mind.
How do racist and non-racist people act with automatic vs. controlled processing?
They do not differ in terms of the automatic process, but do so in terms of controlled. Racists/sexists ect. don't disregard the stereotype
A cognitive mental structure that includes beliefs and information about a class of objects including their interrelations.
Affects how we perceive events when they occur and remember events after they have occurred.
Prejudice revealed in subtle, indirect ways
Ex. The claim that blacks do not respect traditional American values, or in opposition to social policies perceived to help black people. It allows people to express beliefs and endorse policies that are harmful to African-Americans, but still deny being prejudice.
Old fashion racism
Refers to the endorsement of statements that are obviously and blatantly racist.
Ex. The belief that blacks are generally inferior to whites, the blacks and whites should be segregated and maintain social distance from one another.
o Wanted to see if ambiguity was necessary for higher conformity. Had participants perform a straightforward task
♣ When confederates call out the wrong answer, the participant goes along 37% of the time
• Reflects compliance
When given a partner, or if answering in private, the influence is reduced
o Influenced by Asch
o Would behavior more consequential than simple line judgements result in same level of influence?
♣ Accidentally stumbled onto paradigm he used in obedience studies
♣ Found high levels of obedience despite Learner shouting, pounding on the walls, or remaining silent
• When remote, or could only hear the Learner's voice
• Group effects
o When the peer administers shock
♣ Lower levels of obedience when:
• Participants are not close to an authority figure
o If experimenter was on the phone
• In close proximity to the learner
• Group effects
o If two peers rebel
♣ 21 out of 22 nurses were going to give a lethal dose of medication to a patient
• Doctor was unknown
• Medication was unauthorized
• Order was made on the phone
Meeus and Raaijmakers (1995) Utrecht Studies
♣ Study explored how stress effected job interview and performance on a job-related test
• A criticism to Milgram's study was that they were ignorant of electricity, so they addressed that criticism here by doing a task the people knew (their job)
♣ Experimenter had participant make a series of harassing remarks that escalated in intensity
o Overall- Over 90% obedience
o If experimenter was absent- Percentage in the 30%
♣ Though their self-report was 100%
♣ "We want to appear as though we obeyed"
o If 2 peers rebel- Percentage in the teens
Sherif (1937)- Autokinetic Study
o Interested in Social Norms and how they are formed. Attmepted to create a norm in a laboratory context.
o Seated people alone in room, showed a light that appeared to move (but didn't)
o There was no way to know how much it moved, participants simply guessed
o Sherif took the average of guesses
o Autokinetic effect
♣ The apparent motion of a stationary point of light in a completely dark environment
o Individual came back the next day
♣ They tested in a social context
♣ Over time, the estimates CONVERGE on an average for the group
o One year later
♣ When tested alone, the individuals maintained the groups' distance as their own personal judgement
• Suggests they had accepted what they had converged on
• Internalized the norm
♣ This study exemplifies ACCEPTANCE
• Ambiguity increases power of social influence
Change in belief/behavior as a result of real or imagined group pressure.
Conformity in public while privately Disagreeing
Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure.
What do the Asch, Milgram, and Sherif studies have in common?
How are the Asch, Milligram, and Sherif studies differ?
How does the Berger study (Milgram replication) differ from the Milgram experiment?
o Asch wanted to see if you had to have ambiguity for social influence. All showed much higher conformity/obedience when proximity was close and when things were impersonal.
Miller paper: recognizing the most important parts of the paper
How might the arguments in the Miller paper be used to help us understand the McDonald's incident?
Work inspired by the Milligram Experiment
Meeus and Raaijmaker (1995) - Utrecht Studies
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psych 350 Exam 3
Psych102 Exam 3
Psych 101 Chapter 10
Psychology Ch. 12
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
CJ 420 - Final Exam Essays
CJ 420 - Final Exam T/F
CJ 420 - Final Exam Matching Terms
CJ 350 Final Exam