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Politics of the United States
AP GOVERNMENT The PRESIDENT
Terms in this set (46)
Commander in Chief
The President is the civilian head of the military. Gets advice from the generals about military policy, but the final military decision rests with him.
Enforces (executes) federal law, treaties, and court decisions. Appoints high ranking officials to U.S. government
Powers of the Executive branch
The President's power to release someone from punishment. Can only pardon FEDERAL offenses.
Group pardon EX: Carter pardoned all the people who avoided the draft after Vietnam.
Limits President to two terms. Max number of YEARS = 10. Amendment was a result of FDR being elected 4 times.
Procedures for Presidential disability. (a) President must inform Congress in writing he is unable to perform duties or (b) Vice President and a majority of Cabinet must agree President is unable to perform duties,
OMB (office of management and budget)
The organization responsible for preparing the federal budget for the President
White house Staff
Closest advisors to the President, hand-picked by the President, do not need Senate approval. Include positions like Chief of Staff, Press Secretary, Chief Strategist. Positions are usually awarded for loyalty to the President.
As President, he has the authority to influence members of Congress through the power of the veto, the State of the Union Address, and his usage of the media. As a "legislator" a President recommends legislation and is a part of the bargaining/compromising process of law making.
Directive issued by the President that holds the weight of a law, but does not require Congressional action.
(Informal power) Agreement with another head of state does NOT require approval from the Senate
Right of the President to withhold private communications from Congress or refuse to testify before Congress in the name of national security.
Line Item Veto
Rejecting line items from bills in an attempt to curb Congressional spending. Passed under Clinton, found UNCONSTITUTIONAL by the Court.
President lets a bill sit on his desk for 10 days and within the 10 days, Congress adjourns. The bill DIES.
President lets a bill sit on his desk for 10 days and he doesn't sign it or veto it, it becomes law without his signature.
Written comments made by the President when signing a law, indicating which parts of the law he views as unconstitutional or that are not in line with his political views.
Chief of Party
The President acts as the primary spokesperson/fundraiser for their political party. The often times use their popularity to help members of Congress get re-elected during the mid-term elections.
President using their public position/public visibility to their advantage. Using the full weight of the White House position to get what they want.
Executive office of the President
Immediate staff of the President. Work DIRECTLY with the President to plan and carry out the duties of the President.
National Security Council
Created by Truman in 1947 to keep the nation secure and to deal with foreign threats. The Council includes the Vice President, a National Security Advisor, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State and the President.
State of the Union Address
Constitution requires the President speak with Congress "from time to time." Traditionally, the President gives this speech to Congress and the nation once a year to explain the "state" of the country.
The President appoints Heads of Agencies, Judges, Ambassadors, and Cabinet members. He must have the Senate's approval on these appointments.
President takes the oath of office on Jan 20th at noon. The newly elected Congress convenes every Jan 3rd
The President NOT spending all of the money the Legislative branch appropriated.
Budget and Impoundment Act
Passed as an override to Nixon's veto, it establishes the Congressional Budget Office (CBO-a non partisan legislative agency that estimates the costs of legislation). It also created budget subcommittees known as appropriations in both houses.
Advisors to President-Department heads. Not mentioned in Constitution. Appointed by President - confirmed by Senate. Serve at the pleasure of the President. 15 cabinet positions today. Congress creates these departments.
Department head (cabinet) who leads Department of Justice. The only cabinet member NOT called "Secretary"
Chief of Staff
Part of the Executive Office of the President (EOP), hand-picked by the President-no Senate confirmation needed. They manage the White House Staff, they help plan strategy for the President's agenda. They control access to the President (who gets to meet with the President).
Implied powers that the President can use during national emergencies or wars without Congressional authority because the President can act quicker than the Congress
Political stalemate, a deadlock. Great difficulty in coming to an agreement.
Impeachment and Removal
House accuses (impeaches), Senate is responsible for the trial-they need 2/3rds majority to remove. In the trial, when the accused is the President, the Chief Justice will preside.
Government official is approaching the end of their term, and because of this, they are seen as having less influence due to their limited time in office.
The list of people who would serve as President if the President is unable to do his job. (A) Vice President (B) Speaker of the House (C) President Pro Tempore (D) Cabinet positions in the order they were created.
Postponement of punishment from a federal offense.
Legislative branch is called back into session when they have adjourned. The President has the power to call a special session for extraordinary circumstances.
War Powers Resolution Act
Passed in 1973 in an override over NIXON. An attempt to curb the President's Commander in Chief powers. (A) President has 48 hours to inform Congress where, when, and why he sent the troops (B) They have 60 days to decide to bring them home or leave them there.
Constitutional authority of President to make appointments when the Senate is on recess. It's an attempt to bypass the Senate. The appointment expires at the end of the Congressional term.
United States V Nixon (1974)
Supreme Court said there was no absolute executive privilege allowing a President to refuse to comply with a court order to produce information needed in a criminal trial.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Military advisors to the President
Electors cast separate ballots for President and Vice President.
White House and both chambers of Congress are the same party.
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
Cluster of executive staff agencies housed in the West Wing of the White House-to help President carry out his duties. Examples include the OMB and the Council of Economic Advisers.
Council of Economic Advisors
Advise the President on the economy. Help the President understand the ongoing rates of inflation, unemployment, and other economic matters.
Presidential Honeymoon period
The first 100 days of a Presidency. Approval ratings tend to be high. Criticism by the media and the opposing party tend to be low. Typically the time when Presidents are successful in getting their legislative agenda passed.
Describes a Presidential style. One who acts without consulting Congress or acts in secrecy to evade of deceive Congress (Nixon was given this term)
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy
George C. Edwards III, Martin P. Wattenberg, Robert L. Lineberry
Magruder's American Government (Florida Student Edition)
Daniel M. Shea
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