31 terms

Unit 12 Launching New Republic: Economic/Social Change, Gathering Storm

Society for the Encouragement of Useful Manufactures
attempted to demonstrate the potential of large-scale industrial enterprises
white landowning family farmers
"republican motherhood"
idea that women should not rush into marriage but should first improve their minds so that they could instill republican ideals in their children
"the narrow circle of domesticity"
role of women to maintain roles in the household
Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts
series of laws designed to promote better relations between Indians and whites
Benjamin Banneker
self-taught African American mathematician and astronomer
Fugitive Slave Law
(1793) required return of runaway slaves; denied blacks any constitutional protections
Gabriel's Rebellion
failed slave rebellion in Virginia
Cotton gin
invention that made cleaning of southern cotton fast and cheap
belief in representative democracy; opposition to monarchism and aristocracy; the yeoman farmer best exemplifies civic virtue
Popular liberty
required popular virtue, and virtue being the disposition to place public good above private interest and to exercise vigilance in keeping government under control
Jefferson's Revolution
Jefferson's mission to restore liberty and tranquility that he thought the US had enjoyed in its earliest years; to reverse what he saw a drift into despotism
Chief Justice John Marshall
arch-Federalist appointed by John Adams; one of most influential judges on the Supreme Court
Marbury vs Madison
Marshall and Court ruled that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority; set standard for judicial review
Judicial review
principle that Supreme Court can review and reject measures passed by Congress
Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson's purchase of interior of North American from France; virtually doubled size of United States
Shoshone Indian who guided Lewis and Clark on expedition; acted as symbol of peace between tribes
Lewis and Clark expedition
two-year exploration of newly acquired territory
Aaron Burr
American politician; served as the third Vice President under Thomas Jefferson
"Northern Confederacy"
plotted alliance of Nova Scotia, New England, New York, Pennsylvania by Aaron Burr
Burr Conspiracy
suspected treasonous group of planters, politicians, and army officers led by former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr
Republicans who subscribed to "country ideology"
Country ideology
celebrated wisdom of farmer against rulers and warned against governments' tendency to encroach on liberty
Orders in Council
a series of British trade decrees through which Britain intended to blockade part of continental Europe; staunch flow of products that might aid French war effort
The Cheasapeake
US frigate that heightened tensions between British-American tensions
British practice of taking deserters and others from American ships for service in the Royal Navy
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson's attempt at peaceable coercion by suspending American trade with France and England
Non-Intercourse Act
mostly ineffective act that lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports; meant to damage the economies of the Britain/France
Macon's Bill No. 2
act to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars
War hawks
Republicans that advocated for war against Britain in the War of 1812
Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy that opposed the United States during the War of 1812