99 terms

Sound Mixing and Stage Management

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Sound Pressure Levels (SPL)
How much pressure is contained in a sound wave.
Frequency
the speed of the changes in sound pressure
White Noise
cousin "pink noise" are often used to tune and adjust sound system.
Equalization (EQ)
"coloring" the sound by increasing or reducing specific frequencies
Source Music
a musical cue that is coming from (or appears to be coming from) something that is actually on the stage, such as a radio, tv, or live band
Signal Chain
the chain of electronic devices through which an audio signal travels in a sound system
signal
what sound is called while it is traveling through a sound system. An electrical force.
source
in a sound system, where the signal comes from, such as a microphone, a tape deck, and so on
mixer
an audio device that takes in multiple audio signals, adjusts them and sends them out to amplifiers and other devices
signal level
the strength of an audio signal as it travels through a sound system. Usually mic level, line level, or speaker level.
pre-amp
the part of a mixer that amplifiers mic-level signals to line level
diaphragm
the tiny membrane in a microphone that vibrates when sound hits it, allowing the microphone to "hear"
dynamic mics
microphones that pick up sound with a tiny, moveable strip of metal. the vibration of the strip are converted to an electrical signal with a tiny magnet
condenser miss
microphones that pick up sound using a small electrical feed. Disturbances in the field are detected by the circuitry and converted to an audio signal
phantom power
power that comes to a microphone over an audio wire from the mixer. Necessary for compressor mics
impedance
the amount of resistance that an electronic devise puts up to a n incoming signal; two varieties - high and low
balanced lines
one of the two varieties of cables; balanced requires three wires and resists noise
unbalanced line
one of the two varieties of cables; unbalanced requires two cables and collects noise
XLR plug
A plug with either three prongs or three holes set into a round casing. Used for microphone cables. Called "XLR" because the three pins carry the audio signals for ground ("X"), left ("L"), and right ("R")
phono (quarter-inch) plug
A long, slender plug used for headphones and many other audio devices
lavalier (lav) mics
pencil eraser sized microphones that are mounted on a collar or lapel
wireless mics
a microphone that does not have to be plugged in to a cord. the mic transmits the sound via radio waves
hand-held mics
as opposed to a mic on a stand or attached to a performers body
headset
a microphone that is designed to be worn on the head like a telephone headset
body mic
a small, almost invisible microphone that mounts on an actors head or body
belt pack
part of a headset system that connects the headset to the rest of the system
transceiver
the part of a wireless mic that sends out the signal. In a hand-held mic, it is inside the mic; in a body mic, it is separate unit
sweating out a mic
what happens when a drop of sweat covers a small body, making it unusable
PZM mic
a microphone that sits on the floor and uses the reflected sounds off the floor to pick up better sound
shotgun mic
a microphone designed to pick up sound only directly in front of it
feedback
an annoying noise caused by a sound leaving a speaker and immediately reentering the sound system through the microphone. This round trip is repeated at the speed of light, and the resulting blare can be painful and dangerous to the equipment
line-level signal
a particular strength of audio signal in electronic devices, such as tape decks and mixers
RCA Plug
often used for consumer electronic equipment like your DVD. Has a round collar, about 1/4 inch wide with a stubby little pin in the center
analog
any electronic device that uses constantly changing electric current ti represent constantly changing sound; the opposite of digital.
sampling
the process of recording a sound by turning the analog sound wave into a string of numbers. Sampling happens in samplers and CD's
sampling rate
the rate at which a sampler makes samples of incoming sound. for example, 44.1 kHz means that the sampler makes 44,100 samples per second
resolution
in a digital sound or video system, the amount of detail that the file contains
sampler
a device that electronically records a sound by changing that sound into millions of numbers
bit depth
the number of bits that a sampler uses. More is usually better, of course, and everyone pretty much agrees than anything less than 16 bits
audio file formats
how the computer organize and play back the data
WAV
A computer audio file format mostly used on windows computers
AIFF
A computer file format for audio, commonly used with Apple computers
metadata
metadata might include the date of recording, the type of recorder, and information about how it was recorded or processed. It is data about the data
MP3
a computer file format used to compress music and audio into smaller file size
lossless
the ability to compress a file without throwing away anything
PC-based playback
A system that plays back audio from a personal computer
digital audio workstation (DAW)
a computer that contains digital audio software and a physical audio hardware interface, allowing it to be used to create digital audio files
MIDI sequencers
a computer program that records and plays back instructions to play musical notes
cue list
a list of events that will happen in sequence during the show
daisy-chained
the process of plugging in several different devices in a chain where the output of one device is plugged into the input if the next one
sound card
another way to refer to audio interface because some of them are designed to fit into a card slot in a desktop computer
MIDI
a computer language that allows computers to "talk" to and control electronic musical devices
input modules
the part of a mixer the accepts a signal input and then adjusts and redirects the signal from that input
auxiliary sends (aux send)
an output from a mixer used to feed an audio signal to a processor or a monitor
auxiliary returns (aux return)
an input on a mixer that accepts a signal from an effects processor; part of an "effects loop"
output channels
The places where an audio signal comes out of a mixer
input trim or trim line
a control that sets the level of a signal coming into a mixer. turn down for a line level signal and up for a microphone
sends
On a mixer, the control that allows you to send the audio signal to an external device
output
the way the signal exits the mixer
pan
move Side to side, as lighting instrument or a camera
mute
A switch that turns off one channel on a mixer
solo
on a mixer, a button that turns off every other input
group outputs
the volume controls on a mixer where selected channels are controlled a group
effects loop
a loop forms by taking a cable out of a mixer, through an effects processor, then back to the mixer. used to add effects to sound
reverb
the "echo" effect produced by a large room with hard surfaces; often produced artificially by an effects processor
reverberation time
the amount of time it takes for a sound to die out in a particular space
effects processor
an electronic device that adds effects, such as reverb and distortion, to audio signals
compressor
the electronic device that reduces loud signal levels, making the overall sound level more consistent
limiter
an electronic device that prevents the audio signal from rising above a certain point
amplifier
an electronic device that makes an audio signal strong enough to create sound
mono
sound that requires a single speaker to be played back correctly. As opposed to stereo.
stereo
an audio signal that comes in two parts and must be played through two speakers. Generally designed to give the illusion that the instruments are arranged in space
stereo imaging
when the sound engineer has sound coming from two speakers and each speaker is producing slightly different sounds
speaker cone
the part of the speaker that makes sound by pushing the air and creating sound waves
resistance
the amount of force that must be overcome to move a speaker and make sound. Measured in Ohms
ohms
in the audio world, a measure of resistance. used to match speakers to amplifiers
subwoofers
a speaker designed to play very low, almost inaudible frequencies. Always used in conjunction with normal speakers
monitors
wedge shaped speakers that sit on the edge of the stage and allow singers to hear their own voices. In the world of computers or video, a screen resembling a television screen that shoed information (computers) or pictures (video) to an operator
stage manager
The person who run rehearsals, calls the cues during the show, and, in general, organize things backstage
production manager or PSM
The person in charge of the technical side of the production. Generally the technical director and the stage manager report to this person.
contact sheet
the list of addresses and phone numbers used to keep track of everybody's whereabouts during the production period
call-board
the backstage bulletin board where announcements, schedules, and other information are posted
concept meetings
one of the first meetings of the production period, where general concepts are hammered out
design conference
a meeting that happens early in the production process where designers present their work to the production staff
production meetings
a meeting of production staff to discuss items of mutual interest
costume fittings
the meeting where costume personnel measure actors and test-fit their costumes
Striking
to take apart the show after the last performance; also to remove any items from the stage
prompt book or prompt script
The "bible" complied by the stage manager, containing all the pertinent information about the show
blocking
the movement of the actors onstage
crossing
moving from one part of the stage to another, as an actor
visual cue
a cue that the operator runs when she sees something happen on stage. warned, but not called by the stage manager
warning
what the stage manager gives you about a minute before you cue
tape the stage
the process of depicting the outlines of the set on the reversal room floor, using colored tape. Generally done by the stage manager before the first rehearsal
spike tape
colored tape that is used to mark (or "spike") scenery positions onstage
on (or off) book
unable (or able) to perform a scene without looking at a script. the stage manager following along in the script during rehearsal is also said to be "on book"
costume parade
an event held in the theater where each actor walks onstage wearing his/her costumes, one at a time. Designed to show the costumes to the director
understudies
actors who are trained to replace actors in lead roles if the leads are unable to perform
calls
the announcement made backstage (usually by the stage manager) telling cast and crew how many minutes remain before curtain time; also means the specific time that the cast and crew must arrive at the theater
half-hour
thirty minutes before the beginning of the performance, when all actors and crew must be in the theater