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80 terms

NCLEX Drugs

Just the top 50 drugs for NCLex
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Dopamine
Low dose- dilates renal & coronary arteries, high-dose- vasoconstrictor
S/E: Incr ocular pressure, tachycardia, decr urinary output
Headache- sign of drug excess
Valium, Librium
Antianxiety, ***
S/E: lethargy, respiratory depression, ataxia
Don't take with alcohol
Ativan, Xanax
Antianxiety, ***
S/E: CONFUSION, ataxia, drowsiness, lethargy
Check renal/hepatic function
Antacid Meds
S/E: Constipation, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis
Absorp of other meds may be decr if given together
Give with fluids
Monitor electrolytes
Lidocaine
Antidysrhythmic Meds
S/E: Slurred speech, confusion, bradycardia, seizures, dysrrhythmias
Propanolol
Antidysrhythmic Meds
S/E: BRONCHOSPASM
Contraindicated for asthma, COPD
Amiodarone
Antidysrhythmic Meds
S/E: Liver toxicity, photophobia
Gentamicin, Neomycin
Aminoglycosides
S/E: Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity
Encourage fluids, small frequent meal, check renal function before administering
Cephalexin
Cephalosporins, Keflex
S/E: Incr risk of bleeding, superinfections, thrombophlebitis IV, GI distress
Take with food, avoid alcohol, CROSS ALLERGY: penicillins
Ciprofloxacin
Fluoroquinolones
S/E: Superinfections, hepatotoxicity, vesicant, can lower seizure threshold, tendon rupture and CF
Take on empty stomach, monitor liver function
Silver sulfadiazine cream
Tx for burns
S/E: Neutropenia, burning
CROSS-ALLERGY: sulfonamides
Pyridium
Genitourinary med, antispasmodic & analgesic
S/E: Bright orange urine
Ditropan
Genitourinary med, tx, incontinence, antispasmodic
S/E: Drowsiness, blurred vision, dry mouth, GI upset, dizziness
May increase reflux,
NOT WITH GLAUCOMA OR GI OBSTRUCTION
Atropine sulfate
Tx of bradycardia- blocks parasympathetic Nervous system
S/E: Headache, dry mouth, urinary retention, tachycardia, constipation
Check for hx of glaucoma, asthma, HTN, urinary obstruction
Atrovent
Used for longterm tx of bronchospasm, asthma
no more than 12 doses in 24 hours
S/E: Dry mouth, cough, blurred vision
Cogentin
Used for Parkinson's Disease to reduce symptoms
S/E: Anticholinergic eff, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention
Taper before d/c
Heparin
Anticoagulant
S/E:heparin induced thrombocytopenia, anemia, bleeding
Monitor PTT (90-175) Therapeutic range
Antidote: Protamine sulfate
Coumadin
S/E: Diarrhea, rash, agranulocytosis, bleeding, leukopenia
Monitor PT (16-25), avoid diet high in vit K
Antidote: Vitamin K
Klonopin
Anticonvulsant, Benzodiazepine
DO NOT STOP ABRUPTLY!
S/E: Confusion, drowsiness, increased salivation, hyperactivity
Dilantin
Anticonvulsant
S/E: Hirsutism, GI upset, gingival hypertrophy, bone marrow suppression, dermatitis, ataxia, nystagmus
DO NOT TAKE WITH MILK.
Urine/sweat may turn red/brown, incr exposure to sunlight
Magnesium sulfate
Anticonvulsant, used for pre-eclampsia
Hold if resp. <12/min; Antidote: calcium gluconate
S/E: Flushing, extreme thirst, hypotension
Toxic doses: arreflexia, resp. depression
Nardil, Marplan
MAOi
S/E: Hypertensive crisis when taken with foods containing tyramine, anti cholenergic effects, sexual dysfunction
Prozac, Zoloft
Antidepressive, SSRI
S/E: Dry mouth, dizziness, HA, insomnia (give in morning), weight gain/loss, monitor for thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and anemia
Elavil
Antidepressive, Tricyclic
S/E: Photosensitivity, anticholinergic effs, sedation,
Therapeutic eff in 1-3 wks, give at night
Humalog
Rapid-acting Insulin, used in insulin pumps
Onset: 5-15 min, peak: 2-3 hr, duration: 4-6hr
Give within 15 min of a meal
Humalin R
Short-acting insulin
Onset: 30-60 min, peak: 2-3 hr, duration: 4-6hr
May be given through IV
NPH
Intermediate-acting insulin
Onset: 1-2hr, peak: 6-12 hr, 16-20 hr
Lantus
Very long acting insulin
Onset: 1 hr, peak: none (continuous), duration: 24 hr
Insulin
S/E: Hypoglycemia
Have pts rotate sites, only reg insulin given IV, all others SQ
-when mixing insulin in one syringe, draw up regular (clear) before Lantus (cloudy)
Lisinopril
AntiHTN, ACE inhibitor
S/E: Tachycardia, MI, persistent dry cough, proteinuria
Monitor renal function
Small, freq meals, change position slowly
Propanolol
AntiHTN, Beta Blocker
S/E: Bradycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, impotence, bronchospasm, can cause bizzare dreams
Monitor pulse
Do not dc abruptly, provide rest periods, take with meals.
Cardizem
AntiHTN, Calcium Channel Blocker
S/E: Peripheral edema, angina, flushing, rash, impotence, HA, hypotension, constipation
Do not chew sustained-release tabs, avoid grapefruit juice, monitor VS
Lithium
Bipolar med, mood stabilizer
S/E: Fine hand tremors, leukocytosis, polyuria
>2=Toxic signs: N/V/D, drowsiness, ataxia
Have good fluid and salt intake
Haldol
Antipsychotic, high potency
S/E: Low sedative effect, Extra pyramidal symptoms severe, anticholenergic
Thorazine
Antipsychotic, low potency
S/E: High sedative effect, hypotension, anticholenergic, extrapyradidal effects,
Cogentin, Artane for parkinson symptoms
Prophylthiouracil (PTU)
Antithyroid
S/E: Leukopenia, fever, jaundice
Check CBC and hepatic function
Synthroid
Thyroid Replacement
S/E: Nervousness, palpitations, insomnia
Take in morning, monitor weight, tell pt to report chest pain, sweating, obtain baseline VS
Rifampin
Antitubercular
S/E: Hepatitis, fever
Orange urine, tears, saliva, check Liver Function Tests, take with food, peripheral neuropathy
Aminophylline
Bronchodilators
S/E: Nervousness, dizziness, tachycardia, GI distress, dysrrhythmias, take with food, avoid caffeine, >20-toxic range
Digoxin
positive inotrope, negative chronotrope
S/E: Bradycardia, visual disturbances, abdom pain, hypercalcemia
Monitor renal func, take apical pulse before admin dose
>2-TOXIC! (hypokalemia increases toxicity)
Toxic S/E: Halos around dark objects, heart block, dysrhythmias, N/V
Furosemide
Diuretics- Lasix
S/E: Hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hypotension, increases cholesterol
Monitor BP, potassium. Weigh pt daily, don't give at bedtime, encourage K+ foods
Morphine sulfate
Opioid, *** Narcan Antidote (have available)
S/E: Sedation, resp depression, constipation, N/V, hypotension
Ibuprofen
NSAIDs
S/E: GI upset, dizziness, headache
Use cautiously with aspirin allergy
Narcan
Antidote for narcotic (opiod)-induced respiratory depression; 0.1mg to 0/4mg IV every 2-3 minutes as needed until 1mg is achieved
Premarin
Conjugated Estrogens - Hormone - Treating certain symptoms of menopause ( hot flashes , vaginal dryness or itching ) . it is used to prevent osteoporosis ( weak bones ) after menopause in the certain patients.
Prilosec
Proton Pump Inhibitor
SE: HA, N/V/D, rash, dizziness and Ab pain, tinnitus, vertigo
Must be taken whole, 30 min before Breakfast
Pepcid
Histimine Antagonist: end in -tidine
SE: HA, Nausea, Dry mouth
CIGARRETES MAY INTERFER WITH ACTION!
DO NOT take within 1hr of antacid- HS dosing
Zantac
Histimine Antagonist: end in -tidine
SE: HA, Nausea, Dry mouth
CIGARRETES MAY INTERFER WITH ACTION!
DO NOT take within 1hr of antacid- HS dosing
Tagamet
Histimine Antagonist: end in -tidine
SE: HA, N/V/D, fatigue, consipation, gynecomastia
CIGARRETES MAY INTERFER WITH ACTION!
DO NOT take within 1hr of antacid- HS dosing
Lovenox
Anticoagulant
Protamine sulfate can be used as an antidote but not as effective as with heparin.
SE: Bleeding, thrombocytopenia
Monitor PT (16-25) and INR(2-3.5) Therapeutic Range
Pitocin
Uterine Stimulant: Dilute w/ NS and use Pump
SE: Hypotension, Dysrhythmias, N/V, hypertonic contractions
Antidote: Magnesium Sulfate
Augmentin
Amoxicillin/Clavulanate-Allergies common(rash/itching reaction) Not affected by food
SE: N/V/D, taste alteration, Lethargy, twitching
Erythromycin
Macrolide- w/ Foods
SE: N/V/D, HA, vertigo, chest pain, dyspnea
cross allergies with PCN
Methicillin
Staphcillin- Allergies! Empty Stomach!
SE: N/V/D, skin Rash
Vancomycin
Vancocin- MRSA & C Diff TX
SE: Extravasion, Nausea, Oto & Nephro- toxicity, hypotension
Diflucan
SE: N/V/D, Myalgia, skin rash, photosensitivity
Miconazole
Monistat- Yeast infections
SE: skin irritation, Ab pain
Betamethasone
Celestone, Class: Corticosteroid
MOA: Supresses inflammation and immune repsonses, lecithin ratio
S/E: dysrrhythmias
Bumetanide
Bumex, loop diuretic: used for HF
side effects: hypokalemia, hypotension, dehydration, SULFA allergy, increased cholesterol
Wellbutrin
Bupropion, norepinephire help to stop smoking, extended release, ** can cause seizure in rare instance, education, no wt gain, sexual dysfunction
Calcitriol
Rocaltrol, the active form of vitamin D (secreted by the kidneys) that promotes absorption of calcium from foods in the GI tract into the blood, helping to further increase blood calcium level
Ceforanide
Precef
Ceftazidime
Fortaz
Flexeril
Cyclobenzaprine- Muscle relaxant DO NOT crush tablet
SE: dizziness, fatigue, liver damage
Vasotec
Enalapril, Angiotensin Converting Ezyme Inhibitors (ACE)
Delalutin
Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate
Toradol
Ketorolac, (ketorolac) used short-term (5 days or less) to treat moderate to severe pain, usually after surgery.
Demerol
Meperidine analgesic, narcotic agonist Side Effects- N/V, allergic reaction, urinary retention, sedation, resp depression, dizziness
2-4 hr duration
Lopressor
Metoprolol, beta blocker Side effects: dizziness, fatigue, depression, shortness of breath, diarrhea, slow heart beat, can cause bizarre dreams
Nystatin
Mycostatin- Athletes foot TX
SE: Skin irritation
Oxymetholone
Anadrol, USE: Androgen replacement
TOXICITY: Polycythemia, HTN; liver tumour; gynecomastia; acne; azoospermia, BPH
Pergolide
Permax, Off the market because it affected heart valves; parkinson's medicine; ergotamine derivative
Prazepam
Centrax, benzodiazepine
Prednisone
Auto immune disease
SE: Cushings syndrome (glucose intolerance, osteoporosis, hypertension), mood changes, growth failure
Novocain
Procaine, blocks pain neurotransmitters from receptor sites
Phenergan
Promethazine Treatment for N/V
Side effects: drowsiness, rash, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, dry mouth
Darvon
Propoxyphene, Analgesic
SIDE EFFECTS: Constipation, dizziness, dry mouth, HA, itching, sweating, N/V, weakness.
Sudafed
Pseudoephinrine, vasoconstrictor (trade names Privine and Sudafed) used in nasal sprays to treat symptoms of nasal congestion and in eyedrops to treat eye irritation
Restoril
Temazepam, (temazepam) Anxiety or insomnia treatment
Tinactin
Tolnaftate- Anti Fungal
SE: Skin irritation