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Campbell Biology Chapter 4

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
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organic chemistry
The study of all chemicals containing carbon
hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
isomers
compounds with the same formula but different structure
structural isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
cis-trans isomers
carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the inflexibility of double bonds
cis isomer
has the similiar group connected to the same side of a double bond
trans isomer
Has the simiar grops connected to the oppsite of a double bond
enantiomeres
compounds and their superimposable mirror images
functional groups
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
seven most important chemical groups
hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, methyl
hydroxyl
hydrogen bonded to oxygen bonded to an organic molecule's carbon skeleton; alcohol; polar (-OH)
carbonyl
consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond. Name: Ketones (w/in a carbon skeleton) or Aldehydes (at the end of carbon skeleton). Example: Acetone (ketone) or Propanal (aldehyde) -C=O
carboxyl
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
amino
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1 (-NH2)
sulfhydryl
function group- a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen; resembles hydroxyl group in shape
phosphate
a phospsorus atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms. one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton, two oxygen carry negative charges (-OPO3)
methyl
-CH3, consists of a carbon bounded to three hydrogen atoms, methylated compounds, affects expression of genes if bounded to DNA, hydrophobic
Adenosine triphosohate
Compound used by cells to store and release energy - ATP