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air enters the respiratory tract

Nose Function

air is filtered, moistened and warmed as it enters the 2 nasal openings


a tubular structure about 5 in long extending from the base of teh skull tot he esophagus

Pharynx Function

passageway for both air and food


tube like structure

Trachea Function



connects the pharynx with the trachea

Larynx Function

organ of voice

Bronchial Tree

divides into R and L

Bronchial Tree Function

gas exchange takes place


occupy almost all the thoracic cavity except the centermost area

Lungs Function


Internal Respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

External Respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon between the lung

Turbinates or conchae

three scroll like bones

Paranasal Sinuses

frontal, maxillary, phenoid and ethmoid


most superior portion


posterior to mouth


directly superior to larynx

Thyroid Cartilage or Adam's apple

largest area of cartilage


a large leaf-shaped area of cartilage, protects the larynx when swallowing


small, hairlike processes on the outer surfaces of small cells, aiding metabolism by producing motion or current in a fluid


end structures of the bronchial tree

Right lung contains

three lobes

Left lung contains

two lobes

Vixceral Pleura

a thin, moist, serous membrane

Parietal Pleura

the walls of the thoracic cavity are covered with a membrane of this

Pleural Effusion

accumulation of fluid int he pleural space


a needllike instrument is inserted intot the pleural space and the fluid is removed

Normal Respiratory Rate

14 to 20 breaths per minute

Medulla oblongata and pons of the brain

basic rhythm and depth of respiration

Chemoreceptros located in the carotid nad aortic bodies

when stimulated by increasing levels of blood carbon dioxide, decreasing levels of blood oxygen or increasing blood acidity, these receptors send nerve impulses to the respiratory centers which modify respiratory rates


abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds, including sibilant wheezes, sonorous wheezes, crackles, and pleural friction


passing a bronchoscope into the trachea and bronchi


common cold


are short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds that are most commonly heard during inspiration


slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike or dark purple discoloration of the skin


difficulty breathing


bleeding from the nose


oxygen deficiency


an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand in order to breathe deeply or comfortably

Pleural friction rub

low-pitched, grating or creaking lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration

Sibilant Wheeze

musical, high-pitched, squeaking or whistling sounds, caused by the rapid movement of air through narrow bronchioles

Sonorous Wheeze

low-pitched, loud, coarse, snoring sounds


a respiratory effort that is strenuous and struggling, provoking a snoring sound

Chest Radiography

radiographs used to evaluate disorders of the chest

Pulmonary function testing

procedures used to determine lung volume, ventilation, pulmonary spirometry or gas exchange


a surgical endoscopic procedure in which an incision is created in the suprasternal notch, allowing the endoscope to be passed into the upper mediastinum


visualization of the larynx using either a mirror or a scope

Pulmonary Angiography

an injection of a radiographic contrast material intot hte pulmonary arteries. this permits visualization of the pulmonary vasculature, it is used to detect pulmonary embolism and congenital and acquired lesions of pulmonary vessels

Ventilation perfusion scan

the administration of an IV radioisotope to provide an outline of the pulmonary vasculature for photographs

Lung Biopsy

obtaining tissue, cells or secretions for evaluation

Pulse oximetry

the noninvasive method of providing continuous monitoring of SaO2 for assessment of gas exchange

Causes of laryngitis

vital or bacterial infections, excessive use of voice, inhalation of irritating fumes

Signs and symptoms of laryngitis

hoarseness or voice loss, scratchy throat, persistent cough

Signs and symptoms of pharyngitis

dry cough, tender tonsils, enlarged cervical lymph glands, red and sore throat

The primary manifestations of nasal septal deviations and polyps include ___ respirations, dyspnea and possibly post-nasal drip


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