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57 terms

Care of the patient with a respiratory disorder

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Nose
air enters the respiratory tract
Nose Function
air is filtered, moistened and warmed as it enters the 2 nasal openings
Pharynx
a tubular structure about 5 in long extending from the base of teh skull tot he esophagus
Pharynx Function
passageway for both air and food
Trachea
tube like structure
Trachea Function
windpipe
Larynx
connects the pharynx with the trachea
Larynx Function
organ of voice
Bronchial Tree
divides into R and L
Bronchial Tree Function
gas exchange takes place
Lungs
occupy almost all the thoracic cavity except the centermost area
Lungs Function
breathing
Internal Respiration
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
External Respiration
exchange of oxygen and carbon between the lung
Turbinates or conchae
three scroll like bones
Paranasal Sinuses
frontal, maxillary, phenoid and ethmoid
Naspharynx
most superior portion
Oropharynx
posterior to mouth
Laryngopharynx
directly superior to larynx
Thyroid Cartilage or Adam's apple
largest area of cartilage
Epiglottis
a large leaf-shaped area of cartilage, protects the larynx when swallowing
Cilia
small, hairlike processes on the outer surfaces of small cells, aiding metabolism by producing motion or current in a fluid
Alveoli
end structures of the bronchial tree
Right lung contains
three lobes
Left lung contains
two lobes
Vixceral Pleura
a thin, moist, serous membrane
Parietal Pleura
the walls of the thoracic cavity are covered with a membrane of this
Pleural Effusion
accumulation of fluid int he pleural space
Thoracentesis
a needllike instrument is inserted intot the pleural space and the fluid is removed
Normal Respiratory Rate
14 to 20 breaths per minute
Medulla oblongata and pons of the brain
basic rhythm and depth of respiration
Chemoreceptros located in the carotid nad aortic bodies
when stimulated by increasing levels of blood carbon dioxide, decreasing levels of blood oxygen or increasing blood acidity, these receptors send nerve impulses to the respiratory centers which modify respiratory rates
Adventitious
abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds, including sibilant wheezes, sonorous wheezes, crackles, and pleural friction
Bronchscopy
passing a bronchoscope into the trachea and bronchi
Caryza
common cold
Crackles
are short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds that are most commonly heard during inspiration
Cyanosis
slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike or dark purple discoloration of the skin
Dyspnea
difficulty breathing
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
Hypoxia
oxygen deficiency
Orthopnea
an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand in order to breathe deeply or comfortably
Pleural friction rub
low-pitched, grating or creaking lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration
Sibilant Wheeze
musical, high-pitched, squeaking or whistling sounds, caused by the rapid movement of air through narrow bronchioles
Sonorous Wheeze
low-pitched, loud, coarse, snoring sounds
Stertorous
a respiratory effort that is strenuous and struggling, provoking a snoring sound
Chest Radiography
radiographs used to evaluate disorders of the chest
Pulmonary function testing
procedures used to determine lung volume, ventilation, pulmonary spirometry or gas exchange
Mediastinoscopy
a surgical endoscopic procedure in which an incision is created in the suprasternal notch, allowing the endoscope to be passed into the upper mediastinum
Laryngoscopy
visualization of the larynx using either a mirror or a scope
Pulmonary Angiography
an injection of a radiographic contrast material intot hte pulmonary arteries. this permits visualization of the pulmonary vasculature, it is used to detect pulmonary embolism and congenital and acquired lesions of pulmonary vessels
Ventilation perfusion scan
the administration of an IV radioisotope to provide an outline of the pulmonary vasculature for photographs
Lung Biopsy
obtaining tissue, cells or secretions for evaluation
Pulse oximetry
the noninvasive method of providing continuous monitoring of SaO2 for assessment of gas exchange
Causes of laryngitis
vital or bacterial infections, excessive use of voice, inhalation of irritating fumes
Signs and symptoms of laryngitis
hoarseness or voice loss, scratchy throat, persistent cough
Signs and symptoms of pharyngitis
dry cough, tender tonsils, enlarged cervical lymph glands, red and sore throat
The primary manifestations of nasal septal deviations and polyps include ___ respirations, dyspnea and possibly post-nasal drip
stertorous