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small, hairlike processes on the outer surfaces of small cells, aiding metabolism by producing motion or current in a fluid
Chemoreceptros located in the carotid nad aortic bodies
when stimulated by increasing levels of blood carbon dioxide, decreasing levels of blood oxygen or increasing blood acidity, these receptors send nerve impulses to the respiratory centers which modify respiratory rates
abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds, including sibilant wheezes, sonorous wheezes, crackles, and pleural friction
are short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds that are most commonly heard during inspiration
an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand in order to breathe deeply or comfortably
Pleural friction rub
low-pitched, grating or creaking lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration
musical, high-pitched, squeaking or whistling sounds, caused by the rapid movement of air through narrow bronchioles
Pulmonary function testing
procedures used to determine lung volume, ventilation, pulmonary spirometry or gas exchange
a surgical endoscopic procedure in which an incision is created in the suprasternal notch, allowing the endoscope to be passed into the upper mediastinum
an injection of a radiographic contrast material intot hte pulmonary arteries. this permits visualization of the pulmonary vasculature, it is used to detect pulmonary embolism and congenital and acquired lesions of pulmonary vessels
Ventilation perfusion scan
the administration of an IV radioisotope to provide an outline of the pulmonary vasculature for photographs
the noninvasive method of providing continuous monitoring of SaO2 for assessment of gas exchange
Causes of laryngitis
vital or bacterial infections, excessive use of voice, inhalation of irritating fumes
Signs and symptoms of pharyngitis
dry cough, tender tonsils, enlarged cervical lymph glands, red and sore throat
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