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CH12: Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa and Helminths

Microbiology: An Introduction 11th edition Tortora
STUDY
PLAY
Yeast infections are caused by

A) Candida albicans
B) Stachybotrys
Candida albicans.

Candida albicans yeast infections may occur in the mouth as thrush or as vulvovaginal candidiasis in females.
Which mode of nutrition do fungi possess?

A) chemoheterotrophs
B) photosynthesizers
chemoheterotrophs.

Fungi require organic compounds for energy and carbon
Fungi that infect only the epidermis, hair, and nails are

A) dermatophytes
B) yeasts
dermatophytes.

Dermatophytes secrete keratinase, which digests keratin found in hair, nails, and skin
Which of these is a neurotoxin produced by diatoms?

A) domoic acid
B) carrageenan
domoic acid.

Domoic acid causes memory loss and diarrhea when ingested
Under certain adverse conditions, some protozoa produce a protective capsule. Is this a

A) spore
B) cyst
cyst.

A cyst permits the organism to survive when food, moisture, or oxygen are lacking
Entamoeba histolytica belongs to which group?

A) helminths
B) protozoa
protozoa.

This protozoan is the cause of amoebic dysentery
Which type of organism is Toxoplasma gondii?

A) a protozoan parasite
B) a helminth
a protozoan parasite.

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect cats as well as humans
What is the name of the motile, feeding stage that all protozoa have?

A) a trophozoite
B) a cyst
a trophozoite.

The trophozoite feeds upon bacteria and small particulate nutrients
Which type of host is an organism that harbors the adult, sexually mature form of a parasite?

A) the definitive host
B) the intermediate host.
the definitive host.

The definitive host harbors the sexually mature form of a parasite and the intermediate host is the host in which the parasite undergoes asexual reproduction
True or False

Trichinellosis can be transmitted by eating contaminated pork
true
True or False

Algin is a neurotoxin produced by some dinoflagellates
false
Which is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito?

A) malaria
B) West Nile virus
malaria
Which type of organism is a nematode?

A) fungus
B) a helminth.
a helminth
Which parasitic helminth lives near the anus of infected children?

A) Enterobius vernicularis
B) Trichinella spiralis
Enterobius vernicularis
Ciguatera is caused by

A) a tick bite
B) a dinoflagellate neurotoxin
a dinoflagellate neurotoxin
What is another name for a fungal disease?
mycosis
In fungi, what is a mass of hyphae called?
mycelium
What is the gas-filled bladder that helps algae float in the water called?
pneumatocyst
What reproductive structure do fungi form?
spores
Which of the following eukaryotic microorganisms are always unicellular?

A. algae
B. lichens
C. fungi
D. protozoa
protozoa
Which of the following diseases is NOT transmitted to humans by an arachnid vector?

A. Lyme disease
B. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
C. babesiosis
D. malaria
malaria
Your roommate tells you that the maple syrup has bacterial growth. Without looking, you suspect the growth is actually a fungus. Why?

A. Fungi can metabolize wood.
B. Bacteria do not grow on sugar.
C. Maple syrup has a high osmotic pressure.
D. Fungi are usually aerobes.
Maple syrup has a high osmotic pressure
The following stages occur during the life cycle of a helminth. Which hatches from the egg?

A. metacercaria
B. miracidium
C. cercaria
D. redia
miracidium
A cercaria is a larva of a __________.

A. nematode
B. protozoan
C. cestode
D. trematode
trematode
Insects that transmit diseases from one host to another are called __________.

A. definitive hosts
B. complete hosts
C. vectors
D. intermediate hosts
vectors
In the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii, humans can serve as the __________.

A. intermediate host
B. reservoir
C. definitive host
D. both the definitive host and the intermediate host
intermediate host
Which of the following is a fungal infection that spreads throughout the body?

A. cutaneous mycosis
B. athlete's foot
C. superficial mycosis
D. systemic mycosis
systemic mycosis
Which of the following best describes a definitive host?

A. the host in which an organism spends most of its life
B. the host in which the organisms undergoes sexual reproduction
C. the host in which the eggs hatch
D. the host in which the organism undergoes asexual reproduction
the host in which the organisms undergoes sexual reproduction
Red tide" is caused by a proliferation of __________.

A. red algae
B. diatoms
C. green algae
D. dinoflagellates
dinoflagellates
True or False

Members of a fungal phylum are characterized by a specific type of sexual spore
True
True or False

Most plants benefit from symbiotic fungal partners
True
True or False

All fungi produce both asexual spores and sexual spores
False
True or False

The phylum Platyhelminthes contains the cestodes and trematodes
True
True or False

Nematodes are always intestinal parasites
False
A new soil microorganism has been described. On some growth media, it forms colonies of unicellular organisms; but under certain conditions it forms long, multicellular filaments and spores. The cells have nuclei, and their cell walls are composed of chitin. To which of the following groups does this new organism belong?

A. bacteria
B. fungi
C. archaea
D. algae
E. protozoa
fungi
Unicellular, nonfilamentous fungi are known as ________.

A. yeasts
B. fleshy fungi
C. molds
D. mushrooms
E. algae
yeasts
All of the following answers are true of the fungi except ________.

A. they can grow in high concentrations of sugars and salts
B. they are capable of metabolizing complex carbohydrates found in newspaper and wood
C. diseases caused by fungi are called mycoses
D. identification of fungi usually involves examination of spore types
E. they are strict aerobes
they are strict aerobes
Fungi are ________.

A. lithotrophs
B. photoautotrophs
C. chemoautotrophs
D. chemoheterotrophs
E. photoheterotrophs
chemoheterotrophs
Fungal spores ________.

A. are as resistant to extreme environmental conditions as bacterial endospores are
B. require moisture for survival
C. are considered "reproductive" spores
D. are released from the "parent" only after the parent dies
E. include only sexual spores
are considered "reproductive" spores
All of these answers are true of yeasts except ________.

A. some reproduce by budding
B. they are capable of facultative anaerobic growth
C. they produce colonies that are similar to bacterial colonies.
D. some are used to produce ethanol in wine and beer making
E. they always cause disease
they always cause disease
Which of the following is not involved in the production of sexual spores in fungi?

A. nuclear fusion
B. nuclear migration
C. fragmentation
D. contact between two fungi
E. meiosis
fragmentation
Which of these answers is true for the trematodes?

A. They live exclusively in the host's intestinal tract.
B. They may have more than one intermediate host.
C. They have long, flat, segmented bodies.
D. They often lack reproductive systems.
E. They are classified in the Phylum Nematoda
They may have more than one intermediate host
You observe large (> 10 μm) oval cells in a sputum sample from a patient. Your culture of the sample reveals fuzzy filamentous colonies. You conclude that ________.

A. the patient has a protozoan infection
B. the patient has an infection with unusual algae
C. the patient has an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus
D. the patient has a yeast infection
E. you contaminated the sample
the patient has an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus
You are an epidemiologist studying an emerging disease reported over the past 3 years in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. You have noticed a seasonal pattern of disease, with new cases appearing in late April through September and peaking in July. No new cases appear during late fall or the winter months. This pattern is suggestive of ________.

A. disease caused by a pathogenic algae
B. disease caused by a parasitic protozoa
C. disease caused by a temperature-sensitive bacterium
D. disease transmission by an arthropod vector such as a mosquito or tick
E. disease caused by a temperature-sensitive virus
disease transmission by an arthropod vector such as a mosquito or tick
Fungi that produce only asexual spores are called
anamorphic
The filaments of molds and fleshy fungi are referred to as .
mycelium
An arthropod that transmits pathogenic microbes to a host is known as a/an .
vector
Trematodes are also known as .
flukes
Term used for all filaments of a mold.

A. hyphae
B. Conidium
C. Mycelium
D. Substrate
Mycelium
What is the substance that a fungus grow on

A. Conidium
B. Mycelium
C. Substrate
D. Filamentous
Substrate
Filaments that look like roots

A. Vegatative hyphae
B. Reproductive hyphea
C. Conidium
D. Mycelium
Vegatative hyphae
Stalk like filaments that stick up over the substrate

A. Vegatative hyphae
B. Reproductive hyphea
C. Conidium
D. Mycelium
Reproductive hyphea
Also known as aerial hyphae

A. Vegatative hyphae
B. Reproductive hyphea
C. Conidium
D. Mycelium
Reproductive hyphea
What produces asexual spores

A. Vegatative hyphae
B. Reproductive hyphea
C. Conidium
D. Mycelium
Conidium
True/False

Fungal spores are the same as bacterial spores
False
Where are conidium found

A. within the substrate
B. on top of the vegatative hyphae
C. on top of the reproductive hyphae
D. Within a fungus
on top of the reproductive hyphae
Reproductive Hyphae
What is B?
Vegatative Hyphae
What is C?
Substrate
What is D?
Conidium
What is A?
B, reproductive hyphae
Which one is known as Aerial Hyphae?
A, conidium
Produce asexual spores?
B, Reproductive hyphae
Produces reproductive structures called conidium?
D, substrate
Substance that fungus is growing on?
C, vegatative hyphae
Secretes enzymes to digest the nutrients in the substrate?
Fungi
This is a picture of what?
What are the dividing walls in the hyphae called

A. Conidium
B. Thallus
C. septate
D. karyogamy
septate
Responsible for food spoilage and disease in plants and humans.

A. Protozoa
B. Helminths
C. Fungi
D. Arthropods
Fungi
What is a plant that depends on symbiotic fungi

A. Plasmagany
B. Karyogamy
C. Mycelium
D. Mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizae
Planospore
Blastospore
Penicillium
This is a diagram of

A. Sacccharomyces cerevisiae
B. Rhizopus nigricans
C. Mildew
D. Penicillium
Conidiospore
This is a diagram of

A. Arthrospore
B. Chlamydospore
C. Conidiospore
D. Planospores
Exospores formed on the outside of the conidium

A. Arthrospore
B. Chlamydospore
C. Conidiospore
D. Planospores
Conidiospore
Which spore forms within the conidium

A. Arthrospore
B. Aplanospore
C. Conidiospore
D. Planospores
Aplanospore
Rhizopus nigricans
This is a diagram of

A. Sacccharomyces cerevisiae
B. Rhizopus nigricans
C. Mildew
D. Penicillium
Sacccharomyces cerevisiae
This is a diagram of

A. Sacccharomyces cerevisiae
B. Rhizopus nigricans
C. Mildew
D. Penicillium
Hyphae
Where is this spore forming

A. conidium
B. Hyphae
C. Bud
Mildew
This is a diagram of

A. Sacccharomyces cerevisiae
B. Rhizopus nigricans
C. Mildew
D. Penicillium
Arthrospore
This is a diagram of:

A. Arthrospore
B. Chlamydospore
C. Conidiospore
D. Planospores
Chlamydospore
This is a diagram of:

A. Arthrospore
B. Chlamydospore
C. Conidiospore
D. Planospores
Smut fungi
This is a diagram of

A. Smut fungi
B. Rhizopus nigricans
C. Mildew
D. Penicillium
A, Blastospore
Which one is a Sacccharomyces cerevisiae?
B, Planospore
Also known as Zoospore?
C, Conidiospore
Which one is Penicillium?
A, Blastospore
Which one is yeast buds?
C
Which one is Conidiospore?
A
Which one is Blastospore?
B
Which one is a Planospore?
B, Chlamydospore
Which one is Smut Fungi?
A, Arthrospore
Which one is mildew?
A
Which one is a arthrospore?
B
Which one is a Chlamydospore?
All of these are asexual spores EXCEPT:

A. Conidiospore
B. Chlamydospore
C. Blastospore
D. Ascospores
Ascospores
All of the following are sexual spores EXCEPT:

A. Ascospores
B. Blastospore
C. Zygospores
D. Basidiospore
Blastospore
Sexual spores form by doing all of the following EXCEPT:

A. Two hyphae grow together and fuse
B. Spores formed by fusion of male and female strains
C. Spores formed by partitioning of hypha or forming special structures.
Spores formed by partitioning of hypha or forming special structures.
Asexual spores form by doing all of the following EXCEPT:

A. Two hyphae grow together and fuse
B. One mold or fungus will divide an area
C. Spores formed by partitioning of hypha or forming special structures.
D. Spores are formed by budding
Two hyphae grow together and fuse
sac fungi
Also known as:

A. Algal fungi
B. Club fungi
C. imperfect fungi
D. sac fungi
Ascomycota
Also known as:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Basidiomycota
Also known as:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Club fungi
Also known as:

A. Algal fungi
B. Club fungi
C. imperfect fungi
D. sac fungi
Algal fungi:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Zygomycota
Sac fungi:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Ascomycota
Club fungi:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Basidiomycota
Imperfect fungi:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Deuteromycota
99% of fungal diseases.

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Deuteromycota
Candida albicans:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Deuteromycota
Spores: Basidiospore and Chlamydospore

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Basidiomycota
Mushrooms, rust, smut

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Basidiomycota
CRyptococcus neoformans:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Basidiomycota
ONLY asexual spores:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Deuteromycota
Branched nonseptate hyphae:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Zygomycota
Bread molds and water molds:

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Zygomycota
Contain the spores zoospores, aplanospores, oospores and zygospores.

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Zygomycota
Contains the spores Blastospore, conidiospores, arthrospores, and ascospores.

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Ascomycota
Unicellular yeasts

A. Zygomycota
B. Ascomycota
C. Basidiomycota
D. Deuteromycota
Ascomycota
Arthropods that carry pathogenic microorganisms

A. Vector
B. Cestodes
C. Nematoda
D. Amebae
Vector
Multicellular animals and many are parasitic.

A. Arthropods
B. Protozoa
C. Helminths
Helminths
All distinguish parasitic helminths EXCEPT

A. They lack a digestive system
B. They have a reduced nervous system
C. They lack the means of motion
D. Reproductive system is simple
Reproductive system is simple
These helminths are leaf shaped with suckers

A. Cestodes
B. Trematodes
C. Nematoda
D. Amebae
Trematodes
Also known as flukes

A. Cestodes
B. Trematodes
C. Nematoda
D. Amebae
Trematodes
Also known as a tapeworm

A. Cestodes
B. Trematodes
C. Nematoda
D. Amebae
Cestodes
Also known as roundworm

A. Cestodes
B. Trematodes
C. Nematoda
D. Amebae
Nematoda
Cylindrical and tapered with complete digestive systems

A. Cestodes
B. Trematodes
C. Nematoda
D. Amebae
Nematoda
Enterobius Vermicularis

A. Cestodes
B. Trematodes
C. Nematoda
D. Amebae
Nematoda
The head of a tapeworm is called the

A. proglottids
B. cytostome
C. scolex
D. oocyst
scolex
The body of the tapeworm is called

A. proglottids
B. cytostome
C. scolex
D. oocyst
proglottids
A reproductive structure in which new cells are produced asexually.

A. proglottids
B. cytostome
C. scolex
D. oocyst
oocyst
Mouthlike opening, cilia take in food by waiving towards it.

A. proglottids
B. cytostome
C. scolex
D. oocyst
cytostome
The ONLY pathogenic amoeba found in the human intestines

A. Entamoeba histolytica
B. Taenia saginata
C. Trichinella spiralis
D. Enterobius vermicularis
Entamoeba histolytica
Unicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that are classified largely by how they move.

A. Protozoa
B. Fungi
C. Helminths
D. Anthropods
Protozoa
This permits the organism to survive when food, moisture or oxygen are lacking

A. proglottids
B. cytostome
C. scolex
D. cyst
cyst
Lives in areas with large supply of water

A. Protozoa
B. Fungi
C. Helminths
D. Anthropods
Protozoa
CHaracterized by segmented bodies, hard external skeletons, and jointed legs

A. Protozoa
B. Fungi
C. Helminths
D. Anthropods
Anthropods
Cause of west nile virus, lyme disease and the bubonic plague

A. Protozoa
B. Fungi
C. Helminths
D. Anthropods
Anthropods
Produce a large number of eggs.

A. Protozoa
B. Fungi
C. Helminths
D. Anthropods
Helminths
These are chemoheterotrophs

A. Protozoa
B. Fungi
C. Helminths
D. Anthropods
Fungi
They have a cell wall and cell membrane that contain sterols

A. Protozoa
B. Fungi
C. Helminths
D. Anthropods
Fungi
One yeast can produce how many daughter cells by budding

A. 4
B. 12
C. 24
D. 36
24
Buds that fail to detach and form a short chain of cells

A. Pseudohypha
B. Dermatophytes
C. Stachybotrys
Pseudohypha
Localized along hair shafts and epidermal cells

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Superficial Mycosis
Due to a generally harmless fungus becoming pathogenic in a compromised host

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Oppertunistic Mycosis
One can acquire this by contact with infected hairs and epidermal cells such as shower floors or hairs.

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Cutaneous Mycosis
A puncture wound allows spores or mycelial fragments to implant directly into the tissue beneath the skin

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Subcutaneous Mycosis
Fungal infections deep within the body

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Systemic Mycosis
Fungi grow best at what pH

A. 5
B. 9
C. 7
D. 3
5
Most fungi are resistant to

A. Low moisture
B. High salt concentrations
C. osmotic pressure
D. sugars
osmotic pressure
High/Low

Fungi and grow in _____ sugar or salt concentrations
HIGH
Candidiasis which causes yeast infection is a:

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Oppertunistic Mycosis
Toxoplasmosis also known as Cat scratch disease is a:

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Oppertunistic Mycosis
Sporothrix schenckii, which occurs in gardeners and farmers is a:

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Subcutaneous Mycosis
Coccidioidomycosis, which occurs in the dessert and SW USA, cause respiratory infection and is a:

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Systemic Mycosis
Affects the scalp

A. Tinea capitis
B. Tinea corporis
C. Tinea cruris
D. Tinea pedis
E. Tinea unguium
Tinea capitis
Affects the torso

A. Tinea capitis
B. Tinea corporis
C. Tinea cruris
D. Tinea pedis
E. Tinea unguium
Tinea corporis
Affects the groin

A. Tinea capitis
B. Tinea corporis
C. Tinea cruris
D. Tinea pedis
E. Tinea unguium
Tinea cruris
Affects the feet

A. Tinea capitis
B. Tinea corporis
C. Tinea cruris
D. Tinea pedis
E. Tinea unguium
Tinea pedis
Affects the nails

A. Tinea capitis
B. Tinea corporis
C. Tinea cruris
D. Tinea pedis
E. Tinea unguium
Tinea unguium
Dermatophytes are

A. Systemic Mycosis
B. Subcutaneous Mycosis
C. Cutaneous Mycosis
D. Superficial Mycosis
E. Oppertunistic Mycosis
Superficial Mycosis