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Kennedy, LBJ, Vietnam
Terms in this set (54)
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States; defeated Richard Nixon in the 1960 Election
Kennedy's ambitious domestic policy that included putting a man on the moon by the end of the decade
Lee Harvey Oswald
Assassinated JFK in Dallas, TX in 1963
Assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963 after the assassination of JFK
Air Force One
Aircraft on which LBJ was sworn into the presidency after the assassination of JFK
Volunteer organization run by the government to provide assistance to people outside of the United States; one aspect of JFK's New Frontier
Election of 1960
First time in which presidential debates were publicized; Americans believed Kennedy won the TV debate, while radio listeners believed Nixon won
How Jackie Kennedy referred to late husband's presidency
A civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence
Bay of Pigs Invasion
A failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961
Cuban Missile Crisis
A 13-day (October 16-28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation, elements of which were televised, is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war
A guided ballistic missile primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads)
Was a Cuban revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008
Was a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964. He was responsible for putting missiles in Cuba.
The name given to a CIA-sponsored group of Cuban exiles formed in 1960 to attempt the military overthrow of the Cuban government headed by Fidel Castro. It carried out the abortive Bay of Pigs Invasion landings in Cuba on 17 April 1961.
An armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and its allies against the right-wing authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista
The elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution
Lyndon B. Johnson
Was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States under President John F. Kennedy from 1961 to 1963. A Democrat from Texas, he previously served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and then as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961.
A set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964-65. The main goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.
A war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.
type of soldier in Vietnam
slightly younger than U.S. troops in Korea or WWII; 80% had a high school degree or less; during early years of war disproportionally poor and African American
Was a theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s, that speculated that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow.
Divided Vietnam along 17th parallel; North is communist, South is democratic; elections would be held in 1956 to reunify the country under one government
Ho Chi Minh
"He Who Enlightens"; Communist leader of North Vietnam; redistributed from large estates to peasants thus gaining popular support
Ngo Dinh Diem
Roman Catholic leader of South Vietnam; supported by the U.S.; established a corrupt and brutal government; persecuted the Buddhists
Ho Chi Minh Trail
network of paths that began in North Vietnam and went through Laos and Cambodia; used to supply VC forces in South Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Incident
Also known as the USS Maddox incident, drew the U.S. more directly into the Vietnam War. It involved two separate confrontations involving North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin
Name of US destroyer allegedly attacked by Vietnamese gun boats on the Gulf of Tonkin.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
A joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of conventional military force in Southeast Asia. Specifically, the resolution authorized the President to do whatever necessary in order to assist "any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty". This included involving armed forces.
Idea that US success in Vietnam could be measured by how many Viet Cong had been killed.
My Lai Massacre
Was the Vietnam War mass killing of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968. It was committed by U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd (American) Infantry Division. Victims included men, women, children, and infants.
Operation Rolling Thunder
The title of a gradual and sustained aerial bombardment campaign conducted by the U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
Was a United States Army general, who most notably commanded U.S. forces during the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1968.
One of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The name of the offensive comes from the Tết holiday, the Vietnamese New Year, when the first major attacks took place.
toxic defoliant used in Vietnam; known to cause cancer
jellied form of gasoline used to destroy farms and forests
tactic used by U.S. forces to drive enemy forces out of their hideouts; used combined ground troops and airstrikes to clear an area
It was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam 1955-75.
initiated to help increase troop presence in Vietnam; original draft allowed for college deferments which led to increased college enrollment and more poor people fighting
From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War.
Also known as the National Liberation Front, was a political organization with its own army - People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) - in South Vietnam and Cambodia, that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments, eventually emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the regular North Vietnamese army.
North Vietnamese Army
Kent State Massacre
Was the shooting of unarmed college students protesting the Vietnam War at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, by members of the Ohio National Guard on May 4, 1970. Twenty-nine guardsmen fired approximately 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.
usually on college campuses; staged to show growing discontent with American involvement in Vietnam; included sit-ins, teach-ins, marches, and burning of draft cards and/or flags
Republican Richard Nixon defeats Democrat Hubert Humphrey and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace; Democratic Party split over war policies
Peace with Honor
Was a phrase U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech on January 23, 1973 to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War. The phrase is a variation on a campaign promise Nixon made in 1968: "I pledge to you that we shall have an honorable end to the war in Vietnam."
Is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were released by Daniel Ellsberg, who had worked on the study; they were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of The New York Times in 1971.
"living room war"
used to describe the Vietnam war as television coverage brought scenes of firefights and burning villages into Americans' living rooms
Was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops."
candidate for the Democratic nomination in 1968; won the California primary, assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan because of RFK's pro-Israeli beliefs
National Security Adviser and Secretary of State for Nixon; helped to develop Vietnamization and negotiate a peace treaty
War Powers Act
used to limit presidential war making powers by limited the president's ability to send troops overseas; cannot have troops overseas for more than 60 days without Congressional approval
hardworking, law-abiding citizens who supported Nixon's Vietnam policies such as Vietnamization but did not express their opinions publicly
post-traumatic stress order
caused nightmares and flashbacks among many Vietnam veterans
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