Chapter 19 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (24)
A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Fraction of solar radiation reaching earth that is reflected back into space
Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards enacted into law in 1975, established fuel efficiency standards for passenger cars and light trucks. The fuel economy ratings for a manufacturer's entire line of passenger cars must currently average at least 27.5 mpg for the manufacturer to comply with the standard.
Cap and trade
allows businesses to buy and sell permits that entitle the bearer to emit a certain amount of pollution. The government issues these permits and caps the total amount of pollution that may be produced.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
the most widespread GHG
the removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks (such as oceans, forests or soils) through biogeochimcal processes.
chemical compounds used in aerosols, insulating materials, refrigerator and air conditioner coolants, and other products. CFCs are widely banned today due to their damaging effect on the ozone layer
Cool periods- more ice volume. Can consist of: less water in the oceans: global sea level fall.
Global climate change
Any significant change in measures of climate (Temp., precipitation, or wind) lasting for extended periods of time
A fall in the average atmospheric temperature.
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Global warming potential (greenhouse warming potential)
The ability of a substance to warm the atmosphere by absorbing and emitting thermal energy
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Gases in the earth's lower atmosphere (troposphere) that cause the greenhouse effect. Examples are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide.
in replacement for CFCs; contain an atom of hydrogen in place of one chlorine atom; can be broken down in the lower atmosphere but still causes ozone depletion if they do reach the stratosphere before being broken down
Periods of time lasting thousands of years that are characterized by relatively warm air temps. And high sea levels. alternate with glacial periods.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
An international panel of atmospheric scientists, climate experts, and government officials established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization, whose mission is to assess information relevant to questions of human-induced global climate change.
1997 international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emission in developed/industrialized countries to 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by 2012 (uses precautionary principle and reduces emissions [fuel efficiency, fossil fuel alternatives] and removes gases from atmosphere [biomass and pumping])
a GHG; a colorless odorless gas used as a fuel, a naturally occurring gas, which is associated with decomposition and with oil deposits. It is a greenhouse gas and burning it, or releasing it to the atmosphere will lead to the creation of carbon dioxide. Burning= CO2. Byproduct of decomposition
Natural formations consisting of mounds of icelike material on or just below the sea floor containing large amounts of methane trapped within a lattice of icelike crystals.
Ocean floor sediments that contain high amounts of carbon, some day be an alternative energy resource.
Attempts to reduce the impact of the risk event by reducing the probability of risk occurrence; the purpose is to reduce the probability that a risk will occur and reduce the impact of the risk to a level where you can accept the risk and its outcomes
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
greenhouse gas that comes from fertilizers, burning fossil fuels, production of nylon and other industrial processes
a way to remove and store carbon. plants such as switchgrass can remove CO2 from the air and store it in the soil. but, warmer temperatures can increase decomposition in the soils and return some of this CO2 into the troposphere
Water in the form of a gas in the earth's atmosphere; is a GHG