Upgrade to remove ads
Child development ch. 9
Terms in this set (70)
What aspects of language separate human language from communication of other species?
1. reflection: ability to look back and forward in time
2. separation of affect
- e.g., can speak calmly even when angry
3. internalization of language
- "talk" to self, can practice response or test hypothetical responses
- analysis: can break it down into sequences of events or messages
- synthesis: and then take those fragments and recombine them into new messages
What is the definition of language? What is semanticity and arbitrariness? What does language consist of?
language: form of communication based on a system of symbols (spoken, written, and signed)
semanticity: language represents objects, actions, events and ideas via the use of symbols (verbal and non-verbal)
arbitrariness: symbols usually not concretely related to concepts they represent; sound itself not necessarily related to concept represented
language consists of:
- the words used by a community (the symbols)
- and the rules for varying and combining them
What is infinite generativity? What are the language rule systems?
infinite generativity: using the finite set of words in our vocabulary, using system of rules (grammar) we can put them together in an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas; express ideas never heard before
language rule systems:
What is phonology? What's a phoneme? Do all languages have the same set of phonemes?
phonology: the sound system of a language
- includes the sounds that are used and how they may be combined
phoneme: the basic unit of sound in a language; it is the smallest unit of sound that affects meaning
no two languages have the exact same set of phonemes
What is morphology? What is a morpheme? What are free morphemes and bound morphemes?
morphology: the rule system that governs how words are formed in a language
- structure of words, combination of sounds into meaningful units
morpheme: minimal unit of meaning
- a word or a part of a word that cannot be broken into smaller meaningful parts
- every word in the English language is made up of one or more morphemes
free morphemes: stand alone words
bound morphemes: can not stand alone; attach to free morphemes to change meaning
What is syntax?
- knowledge of sentence structure and grammar rules
- the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences;the rules for the ways in which words can be combined to make sense
Do you have to consciously know the rules to use them correctly? Are big changes in structure needed to change message? Are the same rules used across languages?
most of the rules of syntax are used without being consciously aware of what the rules are
small changes in structure can make a big difference
rules can vary quite a bit across languages
What is semantics?
meaning of words and sentences
What is pragmatics? What are the conversational conventions? Are the constant across cultures?
pragmatics: the appropriate use of language in different contexts, acquiring knowledge of how language is used
- knowledge about how language can be used and adjust dot fit different circumstances
conversational conventions: using language in a social context, conversational principles
- right quantity of info, truthful, relevant, take turns
can be complex and different from one culture to another
What are speech registers?
different styles of speech for different social situations
What are 5 aspects of language development? What does each concern?
1. phonological development
- development of phoneme perception and production
2. morphological development
- develop concerning structure of words, combination of sounds into meaningful until
3. semantic development
- learning the meanings of words
4. syntactic development
- learning the syntax
5. pragmatic development
- acquiring knowledge of how language is used, including conversational conventions
What are 2 aspects of phonological development?
1. phonemic perception
- ability to discriminate between phonemes
2. phonemic production
- ability to form and produce phonemes
How is phonemic perception assessed in infants?
baby learns to turn his head to the sound source whenever he hears a change from one sound to another
- a correct head turn is rewarded by an exciting visual display
What are the phonemic perception capabilities from 0-6 months? What occurs between 6-12 months?
- have ability to discriminate between speech sounds in any language
- "citizens of the world"
- this capacity primes them to start learning any language in the world
- begin to specialize
- increase sensitivity to sounds they hear and
- lose the capacity to discriminate among sounds to which they are not exposed
- by 12 months, have phonemic perception similar to that of their parents
Is the change in phonemic perception capabilities between 6-12 months sudden or more gradual?
What is phonemic production? What is it's development related to?
phonemic production: the development of forming and producing sounds
its development is related to physical development of tongue, mouth, and position of larynx in throat
What are the stages of early vocalization? At what age does each emerge and what occurs in each?
- present at birth, signals distress
- at birth: vocal tract resembles that of non-human primates: tongue fills oral cavity and larynx is high in the neck, allowing for simultaneous breathing and swallowing, but not for making different sounds
- appears around 1-2 months
- appears around 6 months
- string of consonant vowel combinations (i.e. "bababa" or "nanana")
What are 2 important points about babbling?
1. at first, babbling includes sounds heard in native language and sounds not
- but by end of first year, it resembles sounds used in native language
2. deaf infants born to deaf parents who use sign language
- babble with their hands and fingers at about same age hearing children babble vocally!
What are are phonemic production capabilities by age 2, by age 3, and by age 9?
age 2: can produce some (10-20) consonants, but not all
age 3: can pronounce all vowels sounds and most consonants in native language
- but may still have trouble with frictaves (type of consonants often produced with tongue between upper and lower teeth, e.g., "th" in "father")
age 9: most of the time produce all the sounds in their native language correctly, but may still have a few lingering mispronunciations
What is a common measure of language development? By about what age do children demonstrate some basic knowledge of morphological rules?
common measure of language development: MLU (mean length of utterance)
- average number of morphemes used in a sentence
- a common measure of children's language development
children demonstrate some basic knowledge of morphological rules by age 2
What is overregularization? Does it always occur before the irregular form of the verb is learned? Is it only found in the English language?
overregularization: applying rules when they don't apply
kid may have even used the irregular word before
found in children using other languages as well
What are language comprehension and receptive vocabulary? What is language production and productive vocabulary?
language comprehension: refers to understanding what other say (or sign or write)
- receptive vocabulary: assessed by # of words recognized
language production: refers to actually speaking (or signing or writing) to others
-productive vocabulary: assessed by # words can say
Which emerges first: word comprehension or word production? About when can infants recognize their own name, understand their first word? About how many words can infants understand when they say their first word? When can most infants say as many words as they understood when they said their first word?
word comprehension comes before word production
infants can recognize their own name, understand their first word at ~5 months
infants can understand about 50 words when they say their first word
at ~18 months, they can say 50 words (as many words as they understood when they said their first word)
What kind of word is usually the first spoken? What kinds of words are typically included in children's first vocabularies?
first word usually refers to people in the family
initial vocabularies often include:
- nouns (people, objects): "kitty" "ball" "milk"
- events and routines: "up" "bye bye" "night night"
- modifiers: "mine" "hot" "all gone"
On average, when do infants say their first word (range and average)? About how many words can children say by age 18 months, by age 6 and by age 21?
at ~13 months (usually between 10-15 months ): say first word
by 18 months can say about 50 words
by age 6 can say about 14,000 words
by age 21 can say about 100,000 words
What is the dramatic estimated rate of word learning between 18 months and 6 years of age? What is the vocabulary spurt?
some estimates put word learning between 18 months to 6 years at one new word every waking hour!
vocabulary spurt: rapid increase in vocabulary (rate of learning triples, approximately)
- but much variability when start and in rate among children
What is fast mapping? What is an assumption that guides word learning? What are 3 biases that guide learning the meaning of new words?
fast mapping: the process of rapidly learning a new word with very little input
assumption that guides word learning: give novel label to novel object
- know the word for one thing, so assume the new word refers to the other thing
3 biases that guide learning the meaning of new words:
1. whole-object assumption
2. taxonomic assumption
3. shape bias
What is the whole-object assumption, the taxonomic assumption, and shape bias?
whole-object assumption: expect a novel word to refer to a whole object, not a part
- e.g., "cat" = the whole animal (not the tail)
taxonomic assumption: words refer to things that are similar
- e.g., "cat" is for all animals that look similar to that
shape bias: extend a novel noun to novel objects of the same shape, even when the objects differ dramatically in size, color, and texture
- e.g., if it's shaped like a cat, it's a cat
What are overextension and underextension?
overextension: using a given word in a broader context than is appropriate
- may represent effort to communicate despite a limited vocabulary
underextension: limited meaning to be too small
- child may have only heard the word referring to a small, unrepresentative sample
What is joint attention? When does it develop? Compare early in infancy to later (by the first birthday).
joint attention: believed to be a strong contributor to learning new words
develops later in infancy: starts around 7-8 months; seen often around 12 months
early infancy: usually involves a caregiver pointing or using words to direct an infant's attention
by first birthday: most infants have begun to direct adults to objects that capture their interest
Why is the development of the pointing so important in language development?
- important index of social aspect of language
- key aspect in development of joint attention
- ability to point effectively improves in the second year of life as advances in other aspects of language communication occur
- very few other species seem to understand the meaning of pointing
- lack of pointing is a significant indicator of problems in the infant's communication system
What is an important change concerning semantic development that occurs during middle childhood?
changes occur in way kid's mental vocabulary is organized
- begin to categorize by parts of speech
- categorizing becomes easier as kids increase their vocabulary
What are holophrases, and by when do children start using them?
holophrases: knowledge of sentence structure and grammar rules
kids start using them by 18 months
What is telegraphic speech, and by when does it typically emerge, how does it show basic syntax understanding, how many words does it start with, and does it expand beyond that number?
telegraphic speech: nonessesntial elements are missing (i.e. missing articles like "the")
- word order is preserved, indicating basic understanding of syntax
typically emerges at
starts with 2 word combinations but soon expands to 3 and 4 work phrases
What is the main syntactic accomplishment that typically occurs by age 3?
- transition from simple sentences to more complex sentences
- begin to produce sentences containing more than one clause
What are the two stages of asking "wh-" questions and in what age range does this typically occur? What type of questions are children able to ask beginning between ages 3-4?
2 stages of asking "wh-" (who, what, where, when, why...) questions:
- ages 2-3
- first learn to add the "wh-" word to the beginning of the question (e.g., "Why that doggie is barking?", "When we are going to the park?")
- later learn to inver the auxiliary verb (e.g., "Why is that doggie barking?", "When are we going to the park?")
ages 3-4: asks questions without "wh-" word, using correct grammatical structure
What aspects of pragmatics develop during the preschool years? What is code-switching?
aspects of pragmatics develop during the preschool years:
- learn rules of politeness
- learn rules of culture for adjusting language to context (e.g., "mamma mia!")
- initiating conversation, taking turns in conversation, maintaining ongoing topic
- not interrupting (e.g., Mia age 4!)
- begin using language for jokes
- begin code switching
code-switching: alternating between two or more languages or varieties of language in conversation
- e.g., will use simpler style of speech when talking to a 2-year old, use more polite language talking to an adult than a peer
What is dialect? How it related to pragmatic development in adolescence?
dialect: variety of language distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation
it is related to pragmatic development in adolescence because teenagers often have a dialect spoken only with their peers (jargon, slang)
What is communicative competence? By about what age have typically developing children mastered the basic structure of their native language? What are their basic skills at this time?
communicative competence: all 5 aspects of language together
by about 5 years, typically developing children master the basic structure of their native language
- phonology: can produce most sounds well
- morphology: can put endings on words to change meaning and talk in longer sentences
- semantics: know the meanings of lots of different words
- syntax: have basic structure and rules for how words go together
- pragmatics: can adjust speech depending on the situation
What is metalinguistic awareness? When does it develop?
metalinguistic awareness: knowledge about language; understanding of the properties and function of language
- knowing that (1) sounds constitute words,
(2) words are combined into sentences, parts of speech, grammar rules, (3) only certain combinations of words are acceptable, (4) conversational conventions (not just demonstrating these, but knowing about them)
- understanding the quality of message giving or receiving
- ability to monitor own speech
- sensitivity to speech of others
develops in middle and late childhood
What were the behaviorist and nativist perspectives of language development? What is the term for the more recent perspective and what does it emphasize?
behaviorists: learning principles that apply to all learning (not just language); modeling and conditioning
nativists: children are biologically prepared to learn language due to specialized, innate learning mechanisms
more recent perspective: interactionist view
- emphasizes that both biology and environmental experiences contribute to language development, and the child is active in the process, too!
Within the Behaviorist perspective, what were the mechanisms through which children learned language? Are these mechanisms for learning language different than those involved in learning anything else?
learn language just like learn anything else: through classical and operant conditioning
- nothing special about learning language
What are 3 issues that suggest the Behaviorist perspective alone does not adequately explain language development?
1. how long it takes to learn language
- would take MUCH longer if all language was learned in this manner
2. studies concerning parents' reinforcements
- parents reinforce grammatically correct AND incorrect utterances
3. children's language production
- children say things they've never heard before, so it's not all imitation
What is the main proposal of the nativist perspective, and how is this very different from the Behaviorism perspective? What are 2 key ideas of this perspective?
main proposal: humans are prewired to learn language
- different because this perspective believed that language is special, not like learning anything else
two key ideas:
(1) language acquisition device
(2) minimal linguistic input
What are 3 types of evidence used to support that humans are prewired to learn language?
1. language development is difficult to stop (takes extremely deprived situations)
2. striking similarities in when/how children learn language around the world despite vast variations in language input they receive
- children in all cultures acquire language in about the same way, at about the same time
3. common principles across languages
- all use limited sample of sounds humans can make (snorting?)
- all combine words into structural sequences (sentences); all have grammar
What is the language acquisition device and the concept of minimal linguistic input?
language acquisition device: Chomsky's term for the biological endowment that enables the child to detect certain features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics
- only humans come into the world with this linguistic processor
- current perspective: this is a theoretical construct, not a physical part of the brain
minimal linguistic input: the original formulation of this theory stressed that we come into world highly prepared and programmed to learn language
- language is so universal and so well learned, it doesn't take much input for us to learn it
What are 3 lines of evidence supporting biological influences in language development?
1. evolutionary psychology
3. brain structure
In what ways does evolutionary psychology provide support for biological influences of language development?
selected for in evolution because increased survival: estimated that humans acquired language about 100,000 years ago
- high costs: the anatomy (more easily choke, can die from impacted wisdom teeth)
- but even higher benefits: communication increases survival (e.g., food, safety)
biologically primary ability
- language is species-universal (species uniform)
- virtually all humans develop language
- children have high motivation to learn and use language
How does anatomy support biological influences of language development?
mouth, tongue, throat are especially suited for language
- specific to humans
What are: Broca's area, Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's area, Wernicke's aphasia?
Broca's area: near motor cortex
- area in left frontal lobe of brain involved in speech production and grammatical processing
Broca's aphasia: difficulties in producing speech
Wernicke's area: near auditory cortex
- region of the brain's left hemisphere involved in language comprehension
Wernicke's aphasia: difficulties with comprehension, understanding meaning
What are 3 issues that suggest the strict Nativist perspective alone does not adequately explain language development?
1. striking differences across cultures
2. similarities across the species could also be explained by the fact that we are all raised in a species-typical environment
- all raised in social groups
3. appears we need more than "minimal linguistic input"
In what ways does the Interactionist View hold nature and nurture are important?
- language does have strong biological foundations
- children are biologically prepared to learn language
- but, there are fewer "universals" than the nativists proposed
- a child's experiences, the particular language to be learned, and the context in which learning takes place can strongly influence language acquisition
- language emerges in a sociocultural context: language is not learned in a social vacuum; most children are bathed in language from a very early age --> language learning is a social activity and
virtually everything about language development is influenced by its communicative function
In what ways does the Interactionist View hold that the active child is important?
child is an active agent in the process: "intentional agents"
interaction between parent and child
- the child is an active participant in those social interactions
What are 2 lines of research demonstrating the important influence of social interactions and how adults facilitate language learning?
1. effects of family environment on language development
2. strategies used by adults that facilitate learning language
What was the main result of the Hart and Risley study? What is an important methodological flaw in this study?
- higher SES talked more to their children than lower SES (quantity of words)
- at age 3, higher SES children had larger vocabularies than lower SES
methodological flaw: only 42 families total in study, and only 6 families in lower SES group
How was the sample of the second study different in an important way than the Hart & Risley study? What were the results of this study?
sample was different because there were 108 low-income families (examined variability within SES group)
- amount of maternal talk was significant (quantity)
- but even more important was diversity of maternal vocabulary (word types, quality); stronger predictor of rate of vocabulary development in children
What were the results of the third study investigating associations between parenting and language development?
- sensitivity parenting (responsive supportive), regardless of SES or ethnicity, as positively associated with growth in receptive and expressive language
- negative intrusive parenting (interferes with children's needs, interests and behaviors) associated with slower rate of growth in receptive language
What are 3 important points to keep in mind concerning research investigating associations between family environment and language development?
1. show important associations between family environment and children's language skills
- but also shows that this doesn't tell the whole story - it is complicated
- research finds differences among demographic groups, but a lot of variability within them as well
2. studies are correlational
3. need to understand the proximal processes taking place within the family environment
What are 5 strategies adults use to facilitate language learning in children? Typically, do adults use these strategies deliberately?
strategies adults use to facilitate language learning in children:
(1) child-directed speech
(2) non-verbal games
adults' use of strategies is not deliberate
What is child directed speech? Does it vary with age of the child? What level of complexity appears to be the most effective for facilitating learning?
child directed speech: speech spoken in higher pitch than normal, with simpler words and stench, slower rate
- warm and affectionate tone, extreme intonation, exaggerated facial expressions
- varies with age of the child; we adjust based on age of child
level of complexity slightly ahead of child's current abilities appears to be most effective at eliciting attention and provide maximal opportunity for learning
What aspects of learning language are facilitated by playing games with infants and toddlers?
structural features of language: regular, repetitive, predictable, take turns
What is expanding?
imitate, expand, add to child's statement
- restating what child said into a linguistically more sophisticated form
What is recasting?
rephrasing child's statement in a different way
Key point: Parents are more likely to correct grammatically incorrect statements indirectly by recasting, and more likely to correct factually incorrect statements directly.
What is labeling?
- giving names of objects
- identify when child doesn't know or remember word
- asking children to label what they see
What are 3 general implications of the Interactionist View of language development?
1. children benefit enormously from opportunities to talk and be talked with
2. children whose parents and teachers provide them with a rich verbal environment show many positive outcomes
3. parents and teachers who pay attention to what children are trying to say, expand children's utterances, read to them, and label things in the environment, are providing valuable, if unintentional, benefits
What are 3 implications of the Interactionist perspective for facilitating language learning in infants and toddlers?
1. be an active conversational partner
- start from the start! when they are born
- if use child care, be sure they value talking to babies and toddlers
2. talk in a slowed-down pace and don't worry about how you sound to other adults
- use child-directed speech (and don't care if you sound silly)
3. use parent-look and parent-gesture, and name what you are looking at
- create joint attention moments that facilitate word learning
- facilitate learning by making these moments about things and events that are of interest to them
What are 2 more implications of the Interactionist perspective for facilitating language learning in infants and toddlers?
1. when talking with infants and toddlers, be simple, concrete, and repetitive
- don't be too abstract, talk about real things and events
- use familiar words often to help them remember the words they are learning
- create contexts that are meaningful to them, integrating learning of new words rather than presenting them as isolated facts
2. play games
- language learning most effective in interactive contexts, when children are active in the process rather than passive
- peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake
What are 3 more implications of the Interactionist perspective for facilitating language learning in infants and toddlers?
1. listen and adjust to child's idiosyncrasies instead of working against them
- create sensitive, responsive contexts
- it can take them some time to get out what they want to say, be patient
- many have difficulty pronouncing words as they learn
- whenever possible, make them feel they are being understood
2. expand and elaborate language abilities and horizons with infants and toddlers
- ask questions that need more than a "yes" or "no" to answer
- actively repeat, expand and recast what they say
3. resist making normative comparisons
- remember: much variability among children in reaching milestones
- be aware of when children reach them, but beware of unnecessary anxiety
- know definitions: phonics approach, whole-language approach
- know overall research finds on "which is better?" --> can children learn from both methods? which should be emphasized?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 6: Language Development
Child Development Chapter 9: Language
Chapter 9 Lifespan Development-Language and Develo…
Chapter 9 Development
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
BIO 168 Exam #4
BIOL 168 Exam #3
BIOL 168 Exam #2