Pre-AP Geography Culture Exam

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Terms in this set (...)

Folk Culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Popular Culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Habit
A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
Ex: Wearing jeans everyday
Custom
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Ex: Many students typically wear jeans to class
Hearth
A nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas, and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply
Folk Culture- Has anonymous hearths , originating from anonymous sources, unknown dates, through unidentified originators and has multiple hearths , originating independently in isolated locations.
Popular Culture - Most often a product of developed countries, especially in North America and Europe. Typically traceable to a specific person or corporation in a particular place.
Diffusion
Folk Culture- transmitted from one location to another more slowly and a smaller scale through relocation diffusion.
Popular Culture- Typically follows the process of hierarchical diffusion, diffusing rapidly and extensively from hearths or nodes of innovation with the help of modern communications.
Distribution
Folk Culture - A combination of local physical and cultural factors influnece the distinctive distributions of folks culture.
Popular Culture- Distributed widely across many countries, with little regard for physical factor.
Folk Music
Folk songs tell story or convey information about life-cycle events,such as birth, death and marriage, or environmental features, such as agriculture and climate.
Soccer's Hearth and Diffusion
Became an organized, formal sport in Britain in 1800's with standardized rules, professional players & paying spectators. The spread throughout Europe in late 1800's, then changing some of the feature of folk culture like increasing leisure time permitted people not only to participate in sporting events but also viewing them
Folk Sports
Cricket ( United kingdom and former british colonies and south Africa).
Wushu,martial arts that combines forms such as kicking and jumping with combat( China )
Baseball ( North America, Japan)
Folk clothing
Traditionally worn clothing in part in response to distinctive agricultural practices and climate conditions.
Ex:In the Netherlands of wearing wooden shoes may appear quaint.
Burqa
A loose fitting combination garment and worn by women following traditional folk culture in South Asia and North Africa. Women in these countries are discouraged from adopting western-style blouses, shirts, and slacks. Some parts of Europe prohibit women from wearing the burqa in public.
Folk cuisines
Folk food habits are embedded especially strongly in the environment. Also, certain food are eaten because their natural properties are perceived to enhance qualities considered desirable by the society.
Ex: The abipon people in Paraguay eat jaguars,stags, and builts to make them stronger and brave.
Taboo
A taboo is a restriction of behavior imposed by social custom. May help to protect endangered animals or to conserve scarce natural resources. Also relatively well-known taboos against consumption of certain food can be found in the bible.
Kosher
(of food, or premises in which food is sold, cooked, or eaten) satisfying the requirements of Jewish law.
Halal
denoting or relating to meat prepared as prescribed by Muslim law.
Sacred Spaces in Houses (Lao, Yuan, Shan)
Laos- Laos people in the northern laos arrange bed perpendicular to the center ridgepole of the house cuz' the head is considered high and noble and the fell low and vulgar, people sleep so that their heads will be opposite their neighbourhood and their feet opposite their neighbor feet. If their not obey the customary hierarchy.
Yuan And Shan - Ignore the position of neighbors and all sleep with their heads toward the east, which buddhist consider the most auspicious direction. Staircases must not face west, the last auspicious direction of deaths and evil spirits.
TV hearth
Multiple hearths (1920's ); Television technology was developed simultaneously in the United kingdom, France,Germany, Japan , and the Soviet Union's and United States
TV diffusion
Late twenties century - Diffusion to Europe : Rapid growth of ownership in Europe meant that the shape of the world's set in the United States declined to one fourth which later of diffusion to parts of the world . It took longer than internet diffusion
Internet diffusion
The diffusion of internet service the pattern established by television a generation earlier, but at a more rapid pace.
Cultural Imperialism
American TV programs present characteristically american beliefs and socials Form. Like giving people the different perspective like social mobility, relative freedom for women, glorification of youth , and stylized violence
Media News Bias
Developing countries fear the threat of news-gathering capability of media even more than their entertainment function. The news media in most developed countries block offending networks such as AS MTV.
1984
Amish Sustainability
Shun electronics, ride horse and buggy. 19 US states. Went to the US because the land was less expensive. It is tradition to give their sons farms
Marriage in India
A dowry was "gift" from one family to another, as a respect.The family of a bride was expected to provide a substantial dowry to the husband family.Extended family lives together, eldest man is in charge and parents picks. Men are in charge//boss
Dowry Killings
If the bride doesn't pay the promised dowry, the grooms' family take the bride to the the streets and get killed.
Ethnic Religion
-appeal primarily to one group of people living in one place
-Diffusion is minimal (Judaism is an exception)
Universalizing Religion
-Attempt to global
-Attempt to appeal to all people where may live
-Christianity. Islam and Buddhism are other large universalizing religions
Branch
-Large division within a religion
ex-:Catholic, Protestant, orthodox
Denomination
-Division of a branch that unites local congregations in a single body
-:Methodists, Lutherans, Baptists
Christianity
-2 billion followers worldwide
-Largest following of any religion in the world
-Roman Catholic (52%), Protestant (21%), and Eastern Orthodox (10%), 3 biggest branches
Catholic
Roman Catholic church (Western). Governed by the pope in Rome and have a centralized authority,
Protestant
everyone who doesn't identify as Orthodox or Catholic but still are Christians. Rejection of the Catholic church.
Orthodox Christian
Middle Eastern churches (14 independent churches) that do not have centralized authority and no pope
Comprises the faith and practices of a collection of church that has arose in the eastern part of Europe of roman empire
Islam
-1.3 billion followers
-"Islam" means: "submission to the will of God" in Arabic and is similar to the Arabic word for peace
-Followers of Islam are called Muslims
Sunni Muslim
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad. Largest branch in Muslim countries in soutwest asia.
Shi'a Muslim
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Hinduism
-3rd largest religion in world
-Largest ethnic religion in world
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Spiritism
Human personality exists after death and communicate with the living
Judaism
-14 million Jews in world
-6 million in US
-5 million in Israel
-Christianity and Islam have roots in Judaism
-First religion to believe in monotheism
Monotheism
Monotheism is the belief in one god and polytheism is the belief of many gods.
Polytheism
belief in many gods
Abraham
Founder of Judaism
Jesus
Founder of Christianity, who was born in Bethlehem between 8 and 4 b.c and died of the cross in Jerusalem about a.d 30. Essential to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Muhammad
Founder of Islam, Was born in makkah about 570
Siddhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism , Was born 563 B.C in Lumbini in the present day nepal,near the border with india.
Buddhism
-400 million followers
-Mostly in China and SE Asia
-Follow the teachings of the Buddha
Reincarnation - No afterlife
Karma - actions determine future
God? - You are your own God
4 Noble Truths
1.All living things endure suffering
2. Desire is what causes suffering
3. Suffering can be ended by overcoming desire
4. Nirvana can be achieved by following the eightfold path
Origin of Christianity
-Based on teachings of Jesus in Middle East
-Jesus betrayed by Judas & died on the cross
-His disciples continued to spread the word of this life and teachings
Emperor Constantine
Born in 280 AD in what is present day Serbia. Constantine became junior emperor of the West but then he succeeded Maxentius, the main emperor.
Emperor Theodosius
last emperor of the unified empire
biggest challenge was to contain and incorporate new Germanic tribes (Visigoths, Ostrogoths)
Origin of
Islam
-Abraham, descendant of Adam, marries Sarah
-Sarah can't bear children so Abraham sends her to the bed of her maid, Hagar. She has a son named Ishmael
-Later Abraham and Sarah have another boy named Isaac
-Sarah throws out "slave woman" Hagar and Ishmael and they move to Mecca
-The Jews, the sons of Isaac... The Muslims, the sons of Ishmael. Muhammad is descent of Ishmael
Diffusion of Islam
-Muhammad's successors organized armies of followers
-Extended from Africa to Asia to Europe conquering the Palestinian and Persian Empires
-Converted many people through intermarriage
RAPIDLY
Origin of Hinduism
-No specific founder - much older than other religions
-May go back as far as 2500 BC; before recorded history
-This was also the birth of the caste system. Why is it so hard to get rid of? It goes back to the beginning of civilization!
Diffusion of Hinduism
Diffused southeast asia and mostly into india and the island of bali in indonesia, nepal, south and east of asia
Origin of Buddhism
-Founded by Siddhartha Gautama in 563 BC in present day Nepal
-He led a sheltered and privileged life
-Traveled the world, saw pain and suffering, and could not live in comfort any longer
-Goes into woods for 6 years of meditation. Becomes "Buddha" - The awakened/enlightened one
Diffusion of Buddhism
Did not diffuse rapidly from the ordinate point which was the northeastern of India. Most responsible was spreading buddhism was Asoka , emperor of magadhan empire about the 273 to the 232 BC.
Origin of Judaism
-Abraham, the father of Judaism moves to Canaan
-God made a special covenant with Abraham and his lineage; God would make them a sacred people and give them a holy land if he did what God told him to do
-God tells him to kill his son, Isaac. Abraham obeyed and Isaac did not resist
-God sent an angel to stop the sacrifice and deemed Abraham, Isaac, and their lineage worthy of his devotion
Diffusion of Judaism
-There is a lack of diffusion in almost all ethnic religions
-Judaism is practiced all over the world
-This is due in part to the lack of a homeland until 1948
Also due to persecution since 70 AD in Roman Empire
Continued through WWII
Sacred Space
Sacred space is the place where religious figures and congregations meet to perform religious ceremonies. This is important to HG because a lot of history has taken place at sacred spaces. JERUSALEM ISRAEL 3 of these four and knowing names and conflicts.
Pilgrimage
ourneys to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion, think Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Caste System
Traditional division of Hindu society into various categories; there are four main varnas; or classes:Brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra; each class contains certain subgroups, resulting in more than three thousand categories.
Partition of Palestine
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181(II).
1948 Independence War
Israeli victory (The War of Independence)
- 21% increase in size
1949 Armistice Agreement between Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon
- Arab failure
- Jordan takes West Bank
- Egypt takes the Gaza Strip
- STILL, ARABS WOULD NOT RECOGNIZE ISRAEL\
- Termination of British Mandate for Palestine
- Creation of an independent Israeli state
1956 Suez War
October 29, Israel invades, Britain and France intervene, bombing Port Said. UN, US, and USSR condemn the action, threatening economic sanctions; USSR threatens to invade. UN forces Britain and France to leave, leading to UN occupation in Sinai along the border.
1967 Six Days War
a war fought in June, 1967, between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, in which Israel captured large tracts of Arab territory
1973 Yom Kippur War
October 6, 1973 on Yom Kippur- the Syrians and Egyptians launched a surprise attack on Israel in an attempt to recover the lands lost in the Six-Day war in. 1967. Nixon ordered US nuclear forces on alert and airlifted $2 billion in arms to Israel to stem their retreat
1979 Peace Treaty
(Carter) (Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) A second treaty was signed to cut back the weaponry of the US and the USSR because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for USSR's invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
Jimmy Carter/Camp David Accords
In 1979, Jimmy Carter invited Sadat, and Israeli prime minister, Menachem to the USA to settle their issues. They signed an agreement, which ended 30 years of hostility between the two countries
Israeli Perspectives of the Conflict
• Israeli Jews were divided for many years between those who wished to retain the occupied territories and those who wished to make compromises with the Palestinians
• In recent years, a large majority have supported construction of a barrier to deter Palestinian attacks
• Israeli people live closes to international borders, so they are vulnerable to attacks
Palestinian Perspectives of the Conflict
Palestinians are not satisfied with either the territory or the power they have received
• Some (Fatah Party) are willing to recognize the state of Israel with its Jewish majority in exchange for the return of all territory taken by Israel in 1967 Six-Day war
• Other Palestinians (Hamas Party) do not recognize the right of Israel to exist and want to continue fighting for control of the entire territory between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea
• Considered terrorists
PLO
Palestinian Liberation Organization; formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel
West Bank
Middle Eastern area where Israel kept settling even though they weren't allowed to
Gaza Strip
A territory along the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the Sinai Peninsula; part of the land set aside for Palestinians, which was occupied by Israel in 1967.
West Bank Barrier (Security Fence)
The Israeli West Bank barrier is a separation barrier built by the Israeli government in the West Bank or along the 1949 Armistice Line ("Green Line"). Barrier opponents claim it seeks to annex Palestinian land under the guise of security and undermines peace negotiations by unilaterally establishing new borders.
The First Temple (Temple of Solomon)
Solomon built the temple on Mount Moriah where lord appeared to his father David. Built in the style of other temples in the Levant like the Ayn Dara and Tel Tayinat
The Second Temple (Western Wall; Wailing Wall)
Temple built after Cryus allowed Jews to return. Purportedly smaller and less ornamented than the original Temple of Solomon
Dome of the Rock
First Islamic religious shrine. It was built in 687 C.E., and is located in present day Jerusalem, Israel., Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammed is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque, also known as Al-Aqsa and Bayt al-Muqaddas, is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem
How does electronic media (TV, internet) threaten folk culture?
For some countries think its cultural imperialism and economic imperialism
What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
Declaration of faith, Obligatory follower, Compulsory giving, Fasting in the month of Ramadan, Pilgrimage to mecca
What religions have the most followers?
Christianity
Which religions are universalizing? // Ethnic? Polytheistic? Monotheistic?
Universalizing-Christianity.
Islam.
Buddhism.
Sikhism.
Bahá'í
Ethnic- Hinduism.
Confucianism.
Daoism (or Taoism)
Shintoism.
Judaism.
Polytheistic- Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism
How do folk cultures typically diffuse? Popular culture?
Folk culture typically diffuse slower than Popular culture. Popular culture diffuse is really rapidly than folk culture by the help of technology.
What is material culture? Non-material culture?
Physical evidence of a culture in the objects and architecture they make or have made. Thoughts or ideas that make up a culture are called non material culture.
Where are folk culture hearths usually found? Popular culture hearths?
Folk culture is usually found in homogenous isolated rural areas and popular cultures are found in large heterogenous societies or possessing modern communication systems. Popular culture hearth is like hollywood and folk is like the amish.
Why did the French ban burqas? Why is this controversial?
For a security risk because it covers the face and doesn't identify the person properly. It's a controversy because a burqa is a religious clothes and it's a part of some people's religious culture.
What food taboos exist with different religious groups?
Judaism and Islam people can't eat pork
What did Vidal de la Blanche regard food as?
something that strongly ties people to their environment
In popular cultures, what do popular clothing styles tend to reflect?
Occupation and where you're from,and income
How was diffusion of TV different than the diffusion of internet?
The diffusion of internet was faster than the diffusion of TV
Describe how western news media dominates the in LDCs
They supply a big portion of news
What are typical TV viewing habits of average human? American? Man? Woman?
A Average american watch 3.1 hours. Men watch 7 hours and women watch 6 hours
What are some values that some LDCs want kept out of media that is spread from the west?
Violence and women's rights