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Building and Managing Teams
Terms in this set (57)
Group vs teams
- is an aggregate of individuals who interact and mutually influence each other
- can be formal or informal
- may be permanent or temporary
- is a group that works to achieve a goal
- has command or line authority to perform tasks
- bases membership on the skills needed to accomplish task
Types of groups
Committees or task forces.
- individuals from a single work group
- individuals from different job levels
- individuals from different work groups and different job levels in the organization
- evolve naturally from social interactions
- are not defined by an organizational structure
Real (command) groups
- accomplish tasks in organizations
- recognized as legitimate organizational entity
- composed of several persons who work together
- may or may not have a designated leader
- charged with accomplishing specific time-limited assignments
Committees or task forces
Are formed to deal with specific issues involving several service areas
- are real groups in which individuals must work cooperatively with each other in order to achieve some overarching
- may have a short life span or exist indefinitely
Members compete for resources or for recognition
- ordinary interacting groups
- usually have a designated leader
- include most work teams, task groups and committees
- enhance cohesiveness of group members
- may be dominated by one or a few members
Observable behaviors of group members
Verbal or nonverbal exchanges of words or objects among two or more group members
Perceptions, feelings and values held by individual group members
Phases of group development
Individuals assemble into a well-defined cluster.
Group members are cautious in approaching one another.
Members wrestle with roles and relationships.
Conflict, dissatisfaction, and conflict arise.
Members often compete for power and status.
Informal leadership emerges.
The leader helps the group acknowledge the conflict and resolve it in a win-win manner.
Group defines goals and rules of behavior.
Group structure, roles, and relationships become clearer.
Members agree on purposes and activities and carry out work.
Cooperation improves, and emotional issues subside.
The leader provides feedback.
The group dissolves after achieving its objectives
A major change requires that group to refocus its activities and recycle through the fours stages
Informal rules of behavior are shared and enforced by group members.
Norms are likely to be enforced if they serve to facilitate group survival.
Set of expected behaviors that fit together into a unified whole and are characteristic of persons in a given context.
Task roles attempt to keep the group focused on its goals.
Questions must be asked about:
- the group's contact
- characteristics of the group's work
- the team, its problem-solving style, interpersonal relationships and relations with other groups
Only after diagnosing the problem son the team can the leader take actions to improve team functioning.
Team building activities
Assessing the need.
Implementing and sustaining training.
Group performance depends on the sum of individual performances
Group succeeds if one member succeeds
Task can be broken down into subtasks with division of labor
Group succeeds only if all members succeed
Each individual contributes, but no one contribution is dependent on any other
Group members coordinate activities with others in some designated order
Members coordinate activités with every other individual in the group
Group size and composition
Groups with five to ten members tend to be optimal for most complex organizational tasks.
Homogeneous groups tend to function more harmoniously.
Heterogeneous groups may experience considerable conflict.
Other factors in team management
Productivity and cohesiveness.
Development and growth.
Extent of shared governance.
Nurse manager as team leader
The manager can increase the perceived value of the group.
The manager's communication style affects group cohesiveness.
The manager controls what information is received and who receives it (gatekeeping).
Team evaluation is based on patient outcomes and team functioning.
Committees and task forces
Are generally permanent.
Deal with recurring problems
Are part of the organization.
Have authority as well as a specific role.
Are primarily for discussion and have no delegated authority
Are ad hoc committees appointed for a specific purpose and a limited time
Guidlines for conducting meets
Preparation includes clearly defining the purpose of the meeting.
The leader should prepare an agenda.
Meeting should include the fewest number of stakeholders who can actively and effectively participate in decision making
Place and time
Meetings should be held in places where interruptions can be controlled and at a time when there is a natural time limit to the meeting.
Meetings should be limited to 50 to 90 minutes.
Meetings should start and finish on time.
Group member conduct
Group members should:
- be prepared for the meeting
- ask for clarification as needed
- offer suggestions and ideas as appropriate
- encourage others to contribute ideas and opinions
- offer constructive criticism as appropriate
- help the discussion stay on track
- assist with implementation as agreed
Managing task forces
Members of a task force have less time to build relationships
Preparing for the first meeting
Leader must clarify the objectives of the task force.
Task force members should be selected on the basis of their knowledge, skills, personal concern for the task, time availability, and organizational credibility
Conducting the first meeting
Goal is to come to a common understanding of the group's task and to define the group's working procedures and relationships.
A standard of total participation should be well established.
Managing subsequent meetings and subgroups
Keep all members informed of the group's progress.
A work plan should be developed.
The leader must be sensitive to the conflicting loyalties.
Completing the task force's report
Prepare a written report for the commissioning administrators
Managing patient care conferences
Address the needs of individual patients or patient populations.
Meetings are usually interprofessional and used for case management to discuss specific patient care problems.
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