36 terms

Miller/Levine Biology: Chapter 11

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heredity
inheritance of genes from one generation to the next
genetics
study of heredity
fertilization
process in which the male reproductive cells join with the female reproductive cells during sexual reproduction.
garden peas
Mendel's test subjects
self pollination
process in which the pollen produced by one plant fertilize the egg cells of the same plant.
True-breeding plants
plants, if allowed to self-pollinate, produce off spring identical to themselves
cross pollination
process in which pollen produced by one plant is used to fertilize the cells of another
trait
a specific characteristic
hybrid
offspring of crosses between purebreds
genes
chemical factors that determine traits
alleles
different forms of a gene
dominant allele
the form of a trait that will always be seen
recessive allele
the form of a trait that will be seen if the dominant allele is not present
segregation
separation of alleles
probability
likelihood of a particular event happening
punnett square
diagram used to determine gene combinations that may result from a genetic cross
dominant allele
capital letter in a punnett square stands for...
recessive
lower case letter in a punnett square stands for...
homozygous
two identical alleles for the same trait
heterozygous
two different alleles for the same trait
genes segregate independently during the formation of gametes
the principle of independent assortment says...
gametes
sex cells
incomplete dominance
neither allele is dominant and the heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two phenotypes.
phenotype
physical characteristic (ex. wrinkled, smooth, green, yellow)
genotype
genetic makeup (ex. RR, Rr, rr)
codominance
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
multiple alleles
more than two possible alleles exist for that gene
polygenic traits
traits controlled by interactions of several genes.
1. Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from its parents.
2. When an organism produces gametes, those two sets of genes must be separated from each other, so that each gamete contains just one set of genes.
Mendel's principles of genetics rely on two things...
diploid
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
2N
What is a diploid cell represented as?
haploid
a cell that contains a single set of chromosomes
meiosis
process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
Meiosis I and Meiosis II
What are the two main stages of Meiosis?
each chromosome duplicates
what happens prior to Meiosis I?
tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
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