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FCS 1231- Chapter 4

nature vs nurture
influences of biology vs influences of environment
someone who is anatomically somewhere along the continuum between male and female
gender role
refers to behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and values that culture deems appropriate for males and females
gender identity
refers to how a person accepts the cultures prescribed gender roles; how an individual adapts the expected gender to role to his or her identity; subjective to the individual
gender presentation
refers to how an individual presents his or her gender identity through personality, habits and behaviors
gender stereotypes
encompass the cultural beliefs about what gender roles are and how these roles should be enacted; tends to reflect cultures belief about the ways in which men and women behave
gender attribution
the process by which we encounter someone and reach an opinion of what his or her gender is
gender socialization
the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being male or female, of being feminine or masculine
hegemonic masculinity
prescribes and defines how men should act and feel; ideal dominant standard of masculinity to which men are to aim; man's man
cool pose
exaggerated version of masculinity; presents a powerful face to the world while at the same time entails the expected cooperative behaviors of black culture
the idea that men are superior to women
Masculine Gender Role Stress theory
maintains that there are stressors that may result from a man's fear that he is not measuring up to meeting societal expectations for masculinity
teaches that women are semi-divine and are morally superior to and spiritually stronger than men
gender polarization (bipolar gender)
emphasize the differences between men and women
gender inequality
differences based solely on a person's gender
glass ceiling
refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person within the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level due to of some form of discrimination
gender schemas
the ways we internalize and incorporate specific gendered behaviors and expectations
instrumental schemas
associated with masculinity focus on task- oriented behaviors and "getting the job done"
expressive schemas
associated with femininity and have an interpersonal or relational orientation
social learning theory
we do what we see
cognitive development theory
children could not be influenced by outside experiences until they developed cognitively
gender stability
children reach the realization that their gender will always be the same
gender constancy
children reach the understanding that no matter what they might change they are still a boy or girl
homosocial play
a preference for same-sex playmates