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nature vs nurture

influences of biology vs influences of environment


someone who is anatomically somewhere along the continuum between male and female

gender role

refers to behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and values that culture deems appropriate for males and females

gender identity

refers to how a person accepts the cultures prescribed gender roles; how an individual adapts the expected gender to role to his or her identity; subjective to the individual

gender presentation

refers to how an individual presents his or her gender identity through personality, habits and behaviors

gender stereotypes

encompass the cultural beliefs about what gender roles are and how these roles should be enacted; tends to reflect cultures belief about the ways in which men and women behave

gender attribution

the process by which we encounter someone and reach an opinion of what his or her gender is

gender socialization

the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being male or female, of being feminine or masculine

hegemonic masculinity

prescribes and defines how men should act and feel; ideal dominant standard of masculinity to which men are to aim; man's man

cool pose

exaggerated version of masculinity; presents a powerful face to the world while at the same time entails the expected cooperative behaviors of black culture


the idea that men are superior to women

Masculine Gender Role Stress theory

maintains that there are stressors that may result from a man's fear that he is not measuring up to meeting societal expectations for masculinity


teaches that women are semi-divine and are morally superior to and spiritually stronger than men

gender polarization (bipolar gender)

emphasize the differences between men and women

gender inequality

differences based solely on a person's gender

glass ceiling

refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person within the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level due to of some form of discrimination

gender schemas

the ways we internalize and incorporate specific gendered behaviors and expectations

instrumental schemas

associated with masculinity focus on task- oriented behaviors and "getting the job done"

expressive schemas

associated with femininity and have an interpersonal or relational orientation

social learning theory

we do what we see

cognitive development theory

children could not be influenced by outside experiences until they developed cognitively

gender stability

children reach the realization that their gender will always be the same

gender constancy

children reach the understanding that no matter what they might change they are still a boy or girl

homosocial play

a preference for same-sex playmates

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