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Devlepmental psych test 2
Terms in this set (34)
Cephalocaudal and proximodistal trends
The cephalocaudal trend is also the trend of infants learning to use their upper limbs before their lower limbs. The proximodistal trend, on the other hand, is the prenatal growth from 5 months to birth when the fetus grows from the inside of the body outwards.
The lateralization of brain function refers to how some neural functions, or cognitive processes tend to be more dominant in one hemisphere than the other.
Neuroplasticity, or brain plasticity, refers to the brain's ability to CHANGE throughout life.
sleep in infancy
Generally, newborns sleep about 8 to 9 hours in the daytime and about 8 hours at night. Most babies do not begin sleeping through the night (6 to 8 hours) without waking until at least 3 months of age, or until they weigh 12 to 13 pounds.
Suck reflex. ... Babies also have a hand-to-mouth reflex that goes with rooting and sucking and may suck on fingers or hands. Moro reflex. The Moro reflex is often called a startle reflex because it usually occurs when a baby is startled by a loud sound or movement.
Root reflex. This reflex begins when the corner of the baby's mouth is stroked or touched. The baby will turn his or her head and open his or her mouth to follow and "root" in the direction of the stroking. This helps the baby find the breast or bottle to begin feeding.
Tonic neck reflex. When a baby's head is turned to one side, the arm on that side stretches out and the opposite arm bends up at the elbow. This is often called the "fencing" position. The tonic neck reflex lasts about 6 to 7 months.
Grasp reflex. Stroking the palm of a baby's hand causes the baby to close his or her fingers in a grasp. The grasp reflex lasts until about 5 to 6 months of age.
Babinski reflex. When the sole of the foot is firmly stroked, the big toe bends back toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out. This is a normal reflex up to about 2 years of age.
Step reflex. This reflex is also called the walking or dance reflex because a baby appears to take steps or dance when held upright with his or her feet touching a solid surface.
Dr Karp's 5 S's
The 1st S: Swaddle
The 2nd S: Side or Stomach Position
The 3rd S: Shush
The 4th S: Swing
The 5th S: Suck
Malnutrion (Marasmus and Kwashiorkor)
Marasmus-severe undernourishment causing an infant's or child's weight to be significantly low for their age (e.g., below 60 percent of normal).
Kwashiokor Protein malnutrition, or kwashiorkor, is mostly found in
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs.
Gross Vs Fine motor development
Gross Motor (physical) skills are those which require whole body movement and which involve the large (core stabilising) muscles of the body to perform everyday functions, such as standing, walking, running, and sitting upright. It also includes eye-hand coordination skills such as ball skills (throwing, catching, kicking).
Fine Motor Development. Fine motor movements involve the coordination of small muscles in the hands and fingers. Strong fine motor skills are essential to complete tasks such as writing, cutting, using a fork or spoon, threading beads, moving puzzle pieces, zipping, buttoning, and tying shoe laces.
Perceptual Development (eg hearing depth perectpoin pattern pereception)
The Sensorimotor Stage
This the earliest in Piaget's theory of cognitive development. He described this period as a time of tremendous growth and change.
During this initial phase of development, children experience the world and gain knowledge through their senses and motor movements. As children interact with their environments, they go through an astonishing amount of cognitive growth in a relatively short period of time.
The preoperational stage is the second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This stage begins around age two and last until approximately age seven. During this stage, the child learns to use the symbols of language.
The concrete operational stage is the third in Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This stage lasts around seven to eleven years of age, and is characterised by the development of organized and rationale thinking.
Equlibrium- When a child's existing schemas are capable of explaining what it can perceive around it, it is said to be in a state of equilibrium, i.e. a state of cognitive (i.e. mental) balance. Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired.
Assimilation- is a term referring to another part of the adaptation process initially proposed by Jean Piaget. Through assimilation, we take in new information or experiences and incorporate them into our existing ideas
Accommodation- is a term developed by psychologist Jean Piaget to describe what occurs when new information or experiences cause you to modify your existing schemas. Rather than make the new information fit into an existing schema, you change the schema in order to accommodate the new information.
Habituation is a psychological learning process wherein there is a decrease in response to a stimulus after being repeatedly exposed to it. This concept states that an animal or a human may learn to ignore a stimulus because of repeated exposure to it.
Basic Vs Self conscious emotions
While basic emotions such as anger, surprise or fear tend to happen automatically, without much cognitive processing, the self-conscious emotions, including shame, guilt and pride, are more complex. They require self-reflection and self-evaluation.
Social referencing is term that refers to the tendency of a person particularly an infant, to analyze the facial expressions of a significant other in order to be able to determine what to do.
Emotional self Regulation
Emotional self-regulation or regulation of emotion is the ability to respond to the ongoing demands of experience with the range of emotions in a manner that is socially tolerable and sufficiently flexible to permit spontaneous reactions as well as the ability to delay spontaneous reactions as needed.
In psychology, temperament refers to those aspects of an individual's personality, such that are often regarded as biologically based and sometimes innate rather than learned. A great many classificatory schemes for temperament have been developed; none, though, has achieved general consensus in academia.
goodness of fit
Goodness of fit, as used in psychology and parenting, describes the compatibility of a person's temperament with the features of their particular social environment.
All environments, i.e. family, lifestyle, workplace, etc. have differing characteristics and demands. Goodness of fit is an important component in the emotional adjustment of an individual.
attachment (strange situation and attachment categories)
Vygotsky (eg private speech Zone of porximal develpment make belive play, scaffolding)
Zone of Proximal develpemnt Distance between that which the child is capable of independently solving (actual development) and that which the child could solve with the assistance of either adults or more capable peers ( potential development).
Make believe play
Make believe Play
Part of the zone of proximal development
Children advance themselves as they create new situations and tasks
Encouraged rule-based behavior
Controlling one's impulses
Scaffolding (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976)
Engage the child
Simplify the task
Maintain student motivation
Manage child's emotions
Point out mistakes
Emphasis on spontaneity and the development of self-regulation
Teacher is a facilitator
OHS manages grant funding and oversees local agencies providing Head Start services. Head Start promotes school readiness of children under 5 from low-income families through education, health, social and other services.
Conceptualization, Categories, child outcomes
High acceptance and involvement
Appropriate autonomy granting
Low acceptance and high involvement
Overly controlling and demanding
Makes child's decisions without listening to child
Permissive or indulgent
Accepting but uninvolved
Developmentally inappropriate decision making
Potential for neglect
Mutual support by mothers and fathers
Individualistic vs. Collectivist cultures
Importance of extended family
family variations and child outcomes
E.g (Siblings belnded families dual earner etc)
Individualistic vs. Collectivist cultures
Importance of extended family
Low vs. Higher SES families
Timing of children
Size of family
Time and Energy
Lack of family interaction
80% of US children have a sibling
Variation in satisfaction
Increased self-esteem, academic motivation and performance
impact of television
Average Viewing: 2-4 hours per day
1. Prosocial Behavior
2. Educational Programs
3. Info about the world
2. Passive learning
4. unrealistic views of the world
memory strategies in middle and late childhood
Thinking about Thinking
Awareness and understanding of thought
Theroy of Mind: Understanding the mental states of others
Beliefs, feelings, desires
Understanding one's own mental states
Cognizant of mental strategies
Discerning good and bad reasoning
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
3-6% of school-aged children
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorders
1 in 88 children
Autisim: Deficient in social relationships, problems in communicating, and repetitive and stereotypes patterns of behavior
Restricted interests and relationships
Social Comparison Theory
We measure our abilities/attitudes by seeing how they compare to others'
We learn about our own abilities by comparing ourselves to other people
Suppose you got an 86% on the exam in this class. How well did you perform?
If your friend got a 75%, then you may feel like you are pretty smart
If he/she got a 99%, however, you may feel less smart.
Piaget's moral development theory
5-10 years of age
Obey the rules made by those in authority (i.e., parents, teachers)
Begins around age 10
Increases in Perspective Taking
Rules are no longer fixed
Do unto others as you would have others do unto you
Evaluating Piaget's theory
1. Too simplistic
2. Undermines children's abilities
3. Not applicable to adults
Kohlberg's moral development theroy
Morality controlled by external forced
Accept rules from those in Authority
Rewarded behaviors must be good, punished behavior must be bad
Rules are still important
Maintaining societal order
Post conventional Level
Morality is viewed as abstractly
Adhere to principles that encompass all situations and people
Laws can be modified
Value of human life
Gilligan's ehtics of care
Reaction to Kohlberg
Emphasis on justice was biased against women
Emphasis on care
Focus on emotional components of morality
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