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obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange

Chronic Bronchitis

a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow


panting, obsturctive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane, characterized by paroxysmal attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and coughing.

Pleural Effusion

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity preventing the lungs from fully expanding. Physicians can detect the presence of fluid by tapping the chest ( pecussion) or listening with a stethoscope (ausculation).


the presence of air that fills the pleural cavity as a result of a puncture of the thoracic wall , which allows air to rush in and equalize pressure which may in turn cause the lung(s) collapse (atelectasis)


the presence of blood in the pleural cavity. may arise from chest injury, complication in chest surgery, malignancies or rupture of a great vessel such as an aortic aneurysm.


Collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung


respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs, characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions

Pulmonary Embolism

blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream. Generally due to a released thrombus that had been occluding a long segment of the venous drainage of the lower limb. Symptoms: difficulty breathing, chest pain, and palpitations.

Bronchogenic Carcinoma

malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi, usually associated with a history of cigarette smoking

Cancer of the Larynx

Characterized by hoarseness and/or voice characteristics, palpable jugular nodes, pain when swallowing, and unexplained earache.

Thoracic Trauma

Alteration of breathing mechanics and/or gas echange caused by respiratory system trauma. May be either blunt forced trauma ( injury to chest wall without disruption of pleura), penetrating trauma (injury involves disruption of pleura), flail chest ( multiple rib fractures), and rupturing of the diaphragm.

Cystic Fibrosis

Hereditary condition that causes the exocrine glands to malfunction. The patient produces very thick mucus that causes severe congestion within the lungs and digestive system.

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

neonatal lung injury usually a result of premature birth or respiratory support during perinatal period; poor formation of alveoli; hypoxema and hypercapnea; pulmonary hypertension, Classic findings: atelectasis, squamous metaplasia, alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia, airway smooth muscle hypertrophy. New findings: from gentler ventilation with surfactant, less of everything but prominent airway reactivity (creating asthmatics)


Viral Infection that causes inflammation, edema, and narrowing of larynx, trachea,and bronchi; usually is preceded by a recent upper respiratory infection


Inflammation and swelling of epiglottis, primarily affecting children ages 2 to 8, the child sits with mouth open and chin thrust forward. child appears sick. fever, drooling anxiety, intubation ANTTIBIOTIC treatment


Inflammation of bronchioles with edema and excess accumulation of mucus; air trapping and atelectasis result from increased airway resistance because of small obstructed bronchioles

Foreign Body Aspiration

Inhalation of an object into the respiratory tract, whether intentional or otherwise; more common if younger than age 12; S/S include cough, gagging, nasal flaring.

Treatment For Emphysema

Bronchodilator therapy, Beta-Adrenergic agonists, corticosteroid therapy, oxygen and nebulization therapy, chest physiotherapy, intermittent positive-pressure breathing, possibly mechanical ventilation, and possible surgical procedures

Treatment For Chronic Bronchitis

Similar to that of Emphysema; Bronchodilator therapy, beta-adrenergic agonists,corticosteroid therapy, oxygen and saturation therapy, chest physiotherapy,

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