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property of matter that can be converted into work, heat or radiation; capacity to do work; can be converted into work, heat, or radiation

energy units



rate at which work is done; energy(work)/time

country with most energy consumption per capita


country with most affordable energy


county with most energy intensity of G7 countries

(US 2nd)

country with most energy intensity of G8 countries


which fossil fuel is growing the fastest & is used most to provide energy?


which fossil fuel is used the most for electricity generation?



resources that can be recovered economically with the application of extraction technology available currently or in the foreseeable future


portion of energy known to exist or even suspected to exist irrespective of technical or economic viability

location with most coal reserves

far east & oceania

approx lifetime of coal (world)

270 years

location with almost all crude oil reserves

middle east

approx lifetime of petroleum (world)

40 years
US - less than 10

2 locations with largest reserves

middle east
E. Europe and FSU

approx lifetime of natural gas (world)

60 years


USEFUL output / input

boiler components

chemical energy -> boiler -> thermal energy -> turbine -> mech. energy -> generator -> elec. energy output

calculate overall efficiency

just multiply

power units

watt, kW, MW, J/s, J/hr, BTU/s, BTU/hr

renewable energy

can be converted into electricity & heat
meets less than 10% of US energy demand
ex: solar, nuclear fusion, biomass (significantly in the US), wind, tidal

nonrenewable energy

can be converted into electricity & heat
source cannot be regenerated within a reasonable time period
ex: nuclear fission, petroleum, coal, natural gas

energy savings (annual)

annual energy consumption kWh = watts/1000 x hrs x 365=

annual operating cost = kWh x cents / 100

energy savings (month)

energy consumed in month kWh = watts/1000 x hrs x 31

what percentage of the world's energy demand is the US?


incandescent light bulb

lowest energy efficiency; converts approx 5% of electricity into visible light

fossil fuel power plant energy conversion

chemical -> electrical

what has the highest energy efficiency?


what is the form of energy in biomass?


1 calorie

amount of heat required to raise 1 g of water through 1 degree C


amount of heat required to heat 1 lb of water through 1 degree F
more energy than calorie

what natural resource is the US richest in?

coal - we have almost 25% of worlds coal reserves

over 25% of oil/petroleum products used for...?


what is the projected increase in renewable energy due to?

large hydroelectric facilities in developing countries like Asia

fuel that supports greatest proportion of primary energy in US


which energy sources will increase worldwide?

ALL - oil, nuclear, coal

what percentage of US petroleum demand is met by imports?


fastest growth in energy use -- where?

Asian nations (China, India)

what percentage do heat engines account for our energy conversion devices?


carnot efficiency

maximum efficiency that can be obtained for a heat engine

energy intensity

ECONOMIC GROWTH exceeds ENERGY DEMAND in industrialized countries, and in developing countries they meet

lifetime (of a resource)

RP reserves to production ratio
= reserves / annual use

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