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Chapter 1-3 Test


the total pattern of a group's customs, beliefs, art, and technology; the social group the child is raised in


connections between different parts of the world in trade, travel, migration and communication

developed countries

most affluent countries in the world
- 18% of total world population
ex: United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, most European

developing countries

less wealth than developed countries
- 82% of total world population


independence, self expression, fulfilling your own goals over the goals of the group
- developed countries


goals of the family are more important than the individual
- developing countries

socioeconomic status

not just the amount of money someone has
similar occupations (income), level of education
HIGH - higher education and higher income --> positive development outcomes because there are more resources available
LOW - negative development outcomes

psychosexual theory

Sigmund Freud --> sexual desire as the driving force behind human development


Basis is pleasure principle


Basis of reality


Basis of conscience

psychosocial theory

Focuses on social and cultural environment and not sexuality

Behaviorism - classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov - dog experiment
paired an unconditioned stimulus (food) and a response (salivation) with a conditioned stimulus (bell) --> associate the two stimuli together

Behaviorism - operant learning conditioning

B.F. Skinner
how you increase or decrease a behavior - rewards and punishments


some change or adapting that new information to develop a new scheme.
ex: never seen a dog before


new information that the child learns and takes it in to fit a scheme that they already have.
ex: know what a dog looks like, and add it to the category of dogs

zone of proximal development

zone: area of skills child can accomplish alone and with help


the amount of assistance that is provided to a child.

ecological theory

Focuses on multiple influences that shape behavior
- Microsystem
- Mesosystem
- Macrosystem
- Chronosystem


immediate environment surroundings and relationships (home & family)


the network of microsystems (neighborhood, school, church, etc.)


societal institution with an indirect influence on the child (government program)


shared cultural beliefs and values (economy and the government)


both individual and historical changes in developmental context (throughout the entire system, not the outer ring)

scientific method

1 identifying a question to be investigated
2 forming a hypothesis
3 choosing a research method and a research design
4 collecting data to test the hypothesis
5 drawing conclusions that lead to new questions and new hypotheses

nature-nurture debate

Estimating influence of genes and environment on development
Utilize twin studies

behavior genetics

Estimating influence of genes and environment on development


explains the amount that genes are responsible for individual differences
ranges from 0 --> 1 the higher the estimate the more likely genetics affects the development

concordance rate

goes from 0-100 the higher the concordance the more similar the individuals
used more with identical twins

reaction range

how much does the environment influence it?

theory of genotype

Genetic-Environmental Correlation

passive genotype

children have no control over how their genes influence the environment
typically when you're younger...parents have the control over genes and the
environment that the genes are apart of.
ex: two parents that are musicians - their child will be exposed to music

evocative genotype

the children evoke specific responses from their parents.
children are shaping their environment
not tied to the genetics part
ex: child loves reading --> buy child books

active genotype

children seek out a specific type of environment that matches their genetics
ex: child sees that they are built, they decide to play sports


miosis: division of cells to eventually form the zygote (baby)

germinal period

conception through week 2
most women don't know that they are pregnant
zygote: has 46 chromosomes
-23 from sperm
-23 from egg
first two weeks as a fertilized egg and then it will attach to the wall


the "hollow, ball-like structure in which a zygote develops within during the 1st week after conception"


outer layer
ends up being the structures that provide the support for the embryo
-placenta, embryonic fluid, umbilical cord

embryonic disk

responsible for creating the fetus
cells will become that embryo of the new organism


fluid filled sac that surrounds the embryo to protect it.


organ, provides nourishment to child disposes waste that the embryo might have

umbilical cord

carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the baby and the placenta

embryonic period

major organs develop --> except for sex organs
can be influenced by alot of factors
weeks 3-8 after conception

fetal period

Week 9 to Birth
organ systems continue to develop
lots of growth of the embryo --> fetus
divided into trimesters


by the end of the first trimester
>genitals have formed
>fetus weighs three ounces and is three inches long
second trimester
>fetus is more active and responsive
>weighs about 2 pounds, 14 inches long
third trimester
>experiences rapid brain development
>huge weight gain
>sleep/wake cycles that are similar to a newborn baby
>they can remember sounds


Behavior, environment or bodily condition that can have damaging influence on prenatal development

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

if the mother is infected, it is likely that the child will
-also transmitted through breast feeding

fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

cognitive deficits, distinct facial characteristics, don't develop well in height and weight, sometimes mentally disabled

down syndrome

extra chromosome on the 21st pair
distinct physical features - short, stocky build, an unusually flat face, a large tongue, and an extra fold of skin on the eyelids
mental retardation and speech problems


used to screen for diseases such as down syndrome
simply used to determine sex of infant
done throughout the pregnancy, no affect on the fetus; pictures of the inside of the womb
knowing size and weight, gender, and to check for defects


amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac is removed; done mostly with older mothers or a family history of genetic disorders; run tests on this fluid.
This sometimes puts mother at risk of a miscarriage.

chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

taking cells from the umbilical cord; used to see genetics, specific disorders that are being inherited
Being done more with older mothers --> correlation to complications


contractions - 15 to 20 minutes apart
longest and hardest stage for a woman
-could last up to 12 hours for first births
cervix has dilated 10 cm by the end of this stage


when the mother is pushing
last 30-60 minutes

breech presentation

feet or buttocks are positioned to come first out of the birth canal, rather than the head

cesarean delivery (c-section)

happens if ultrasound shows the baby is in distress
-heart is racing
-vaginal opening is too small
or if baby is in breech position and cannot be turned


injection of an anesthetic drug to the spinal fluid to help them manage pain while remaining alert


deprivation of oxygen

low birth weight

less than 5.5 pounds


born 3 or more weeks early
Kangaroo care


an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation

rooting reflex

when the infant is stroked on the cheek near the corner of their mouth --> they turn towards the source of stimulation

moro reflex

when an infant is held horizontally on their back and dropped slightly --> arch back, extend legs, throw arms outwards

placenta ritual

Navajo - Native American culture
bury the placenta in a sacred place to underscore the baby's bonds to the ancestral land

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