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the total pattern of a group's customs, beliefs, art, and technology; the social group the child is raised in
connections between different parts of the world in trade, travel, migration and communication
most affluent countries in the world
- 18% of total world population
ex: United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, most European
independence, self expression, fulfilling your own goals over the goals of the group
- developed countries
not just the amount of money someone has
similar occupations (income), level of education
HIGH - higher education and higher income --> positive development outcomes because there are more resources available
LOW - negative development outcomes
Behaviorism - classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov - dog experiment
paired an unconditioned stimulus (food) and a response (salivation) with a conditioned stimulus (bell) --> associate the two stimuli together
Behaviorism - operant learning conditioning
how you increase or decrease a behavior - rewards and punishments
some change or adapting that new information to develop a new scheme.
ex: never seen a dog before
new information that the child learns and takes it in to fit a scheme that they already have.
ex: know what a dog looks like, and add it to the category of dogs
Focuses on multiple influences that shape behavior
both individual and historical changes in developmental context (throughout the entire system, not the outer ring)
1 identifying a question to be investigated
2 forming a hypothesis
3 choosing a research method and a research design
4 collecting data to test the hypothesis
5 drawing conclusions that lead to new questions and new hypotheses
Estimating influence of genes and environment on development
Utilize twin studies
explains the amount that genes are responsible for individual differences
ranges from 0 --> 1 the higher the estimate the more likely genetics affects the development
goes from 0-100 the higher the concordance the more similar the individuals
used more with identical twins
children have no control over how their genes influence the environment
typically when you're younger...parents have the control over genes and the
environment that the genes are apart of.
ex: two parents that are musicians - their child will be exposed to music
the children evoke specific responses from their parents.
children are shaping their environment
not tied to the genetics part
ex: child loves reading --> buy child books
children seek out a specific type of environment that matches their genetics
ex: child sees that they are built, they decide to play sports
conception through week 2
most women don't know that they are pregnant
zygote: has 46 chromosomes
-23 from sperm
-23 from egg
first two weeks as a fertilized egg and then it will attach to the wall
the "hollow, ball-like structure in which a zygote develops within during the 1st week after conception"
ends up being the structures that provide the support for the embryo
-placenta, embryonic fluid, umbilical cord
major organs develop --> except for sex organs
can be influenced by alot of factors
weeks 3-8 after conception
Week 9 to Birth
organ systems continue to develop
lots of growth of the embryo --> fetus
divided into trimesters
by the end of the first trimester
>genitals have formed
>fetus weighs three ounces and is three inches long
>fetus is more active and responsive
>weighs about 2 pounds, 14 inches long
>experiences rapid brain development
>huge weight gain
>sleep/wake cycles that are similar to a newborn baby
>they can remember sounds
Behavior, environment or bodily condition that can have damaging influence on prenatal development
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
if the mother is infected, it is likely that the child will
-also transmitted through breast feeding
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
cognitive deficits, distinct facial characteristics, don't develop well in height and weight, sometimes mentally disabled
extra chromosome on the 21st pair
distinct physical features - short, stocky build, an unusually flat face, a large tongue, and an extra fold of skin on the eyelids
mental retardation and speech problems
used to screen for diseases such as down syndrome
simply used to determine sex of infant
done throughout the pregnancy, no affect on the fetus; pictures of the inside of the womb
knowing size and weight, gender, and to check for defects
amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac is removed; done mostly with older mothers or a family history of genetic disorders; run tests on this fluid.
This sometimes puts mother at risk of a miscarriage.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
taking cells from the umbilical cord; used to see genetics, specific disorders that are being inherited
Being done more with older mothers --> correlation to complications
contractions - 15 to 20 minutes apart
longest and hardest stage for a woman
-could last up to 12 hours for first births
cervix has dilated 10 cm by the end of this stage
feet or buttocks are positioned to come first out of the birth canal, rather than the head
cesarean delivery (c-section)
happens if ultrasound shows the baby is in distress
-heart is racing
-vaginal opening is too small
or if baby is in breech position and cannot be turned
injection of an anesthetic drug to the spinal fluid to help them manage pain while remaining alert
when the infant is stroked on the cheek near the corner of their mouth --> they turn towards the source of stimulation
when an infant is held horizontally on their back and dropped slightly --> arch back, extend legs, throw arms outwards
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