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64 terms

Child Psychology

Chapter 1-3 Test
STUDY
PLAY
Culture
the total pattern of a group's customs, beliefs, art, and technology; the social group the child is raised in
Globalization
connections between different parts of the world in trade, travel, migration and communication
developed countries
most affluent countries in the world
- 18% of total world population
ex: United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, most European
developing countries
less wealth than developed countries
- 82% of total world population
individualistic
independence, self expression, fulfilling your own goals over the goals of the group
- developed countries
collectivistic
goals of the family are more important than the individual
- developing countries
socioeconomic status
not just the amount of money someone has
similar occupations (income), level of education
HIGH - higher education and higher income --> positive development outcomes because there are more resources available
LOW - negative development outcomes
psychosexual theory
Sigmund Freud --> sexual desire as the driving force behind human development
id
Basis is pleasure principle
ego
Basis of reality
superego
Basis of conscience
psychosocial theory
Focuses on social and cultural environment and not sexuality
Behaviorism - classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov - dog experiment
paired an unconditioned stimulus (food) and a response (salivation) with a conditioned stimulus (bell) --> associate the two stimuli together
Behaviorism - operant learning conditioning
B.F. Skinner
how you increase or decrease a behavior - rewards and punishments
assimilation
some change or adapting that new information to develop a new scheme.
ex: never seen a dog before
accommodation
new information that the child learns and takes it in to fit a scheme that they already have.
ex: know what a dog looks like, and add it to the category of dogs
zone of proximal development
zone: area of skills child can accomplish alone and with help
scaffolding
the amount of assistance that is provided to a child.
ecological theory
Focuses on multiple influences that shape behavior
- Microsystem
- Mesosystem
-Exosystem
- Macrosystem
- Chronosystem
microsystem
immediate environment surroundings and relationships (home & family)
mesosystem
the network of microsystems (neighborhood, school, church, etc.)
exosystem
societal institution with an indirect influence on the child (government program)
macrosystem
shared cultural beliefs and values (economy and the government)
chronosystem
both individual and historical changes in developmental context (throughout the entire system, not the outer ring)
scientific method
1 identifying a question to be investigated
2 forming a hypothesis
3 choosing a research method and a research design
4 collecting data to test the hypothesis
5 drawing conclusions that lead to new questions and new hypotheses
nature-nurture debate
Estimating influence of genes and environment on development
Utilize twin studies
behavior genetics
Estimating influence of genes and environment on development
heritability
explains the amount that genes are responsible for individual differences
ranges from 0 --> 1 the higher the estimate the more likely genetics affects the development
concordance rate
goes from 0-100 the higher the concordance the more similar the individuals
used more with identical twins
reaction range
how much does the environment influence it?
theory of genotype
Genetic-Environmental Correlation
passive genotype
children have no control over how their genes influence the environment
typically when you're younger...parents have the control over genes and the
environment that the genes are apart of.
ex: two parents that are musicians - their child will be exposed to music
evocative genotype
the children evoke specific responses from their parents.
children are shaping their environment
not tied to the genetics part
ex: child loves reading --> buy child books
active genotype
children seek out a specific type of environment that matches their genetics
ex: child sees that they are built, they decide to play sports
conception
miosis: division of cells to eventually form the zygote (baby)
germinal period
conception through week 2
most women don't know that they are pregnant
zygote: has 46 chromosomes
-23 from sperm
-23 from egg
first two weeks as a fertilized egg and then it will attach to the wall
blastocyst
the "hollow, ball-like structure in which a zygote develops within during the 1st week after conception"
trophoblast
outer layer
ends up being the structures that provide the support for the embryo
-placenta, embryonic fluid, umbilical cord
embryonic disk
responsible for creating the fetus
cells will become that embryo of the new organism
amnion
fluid filled sac that surrounds the embryo to protect it.
placenta
organ, provides nourishment to child disposes waste that the embryo might have
umbilical cord
carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the baby and the placenta
embryonic period
major organs develop --> except for sex organs
can be influenced by alot of factors
weeks 3-8 after conception
fetal period
Week 9 to Birth
organ systems continue to develop
lots of growth of the embryo --> fetus
divided into trimesters
trimester
by the end of the first trimester
>genitals have formed
>fetus weighs three ounces and is three inches long
second trimester
>fetus is more active and responsive
>weighs about 2 pounds, 14 inches long
third trimester
>experiences rapid brain development
>huge weight gain
>sleep/wake cycles that are similar to a newborn baby
>they can remember sounds
teratogen
Behavior, environment or bodily condition that can have damaging influence on prenatal development
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
if the mother is infected, it is likely that the child will
-also transmitted through breast feeding
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
cognitive deficits, distinct facial characteristics, don't develop well in height and weight, sometimes mentally disabled
down syndrome
extra chromosome on the 21st pair
distinct physical features - short, stocky build, an unusually flat face, a large tongue, and an extra fold of skin on the eyelids
mental retardation and speech problems
ultrasound
used to screen for diseases such as down syndrome
simply used to determine sex of infant
done throughout the pregnancy, no affect on the fetus; pictures of the inside of the womb
knowing size and weight, gender, and to check for defects
amniocentesis
amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac is removed; done mostly with older mothers or a family history of genetic disorders; run tests on this fluid.
This sometimes puts mother at risk of a miscarriage.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
taking cells from the umbilical cord; used to see genetics, specific disorders that are being inherited
Being done more with older mothers --> correlation to complications
labor
contractions - 15 to 20 minutes apart
longest and hardest stage for a woman
-could last up to 12 hours for first births
cervix has dilated 10 cm by the end of this stage
delivery
when the mother is pushing
last 30-60 minutes
breech presentation
feet or buttocks are positioned to come first out of the birth canal, rather than the head
cesarean delivery (c-section)
happens if ultrasound shows the baby is in distress
-heart is racing
-vaginal opening is too small
or if baby is in breech position and cannot be turned
epidural
injection of an anesthetic drug to the spinal fluid to help them manage pain while remaining alert
anoxia
deprivation of oxygen
low birth weight
less than 5.5 pounds
preterm
born 3 or more weeks early
Kangaroo care
reflex
an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
rooting reflex
when the infant is stroked on the cheek near the corner of their mouth --> they turn towards the source of stimulation
moro reflex
when an infant is held horizontally on their back and dropped slightly --> arch back, extend legs, throw arms outwards
placenta ritual
Navajo - Native American culture
bury the placenta in a sacred place to underscore the baby's bonds to the ancestral land