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Management 301 Exam 2 Multiple Choice Questions (Chapters 6-12)

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Which of the following best represents a graphic illustration of the relationships among a​ firm's units and the lines of authority among supervisors and​ subordinates?
A) organizational design
B) organizational process
C) organizational chart
D) organizational structure
C) organizational chart
A​ firm's ________ can be defined as the sum of the ways an organization divides its labor into distinct tasks and then coordinates them.
A) organizational design
B) organizational chart
C) organizational structure
D) organizational process
C) organizational structure
​________ represents the extent to which people in different units within an organization think about different things or about similar things differently.
A) Pooled interdependence
B) Cognitive differentiation
C) Reciprocal interdependence
D) Task differentiation
B) Cognitive differentiation
________ interdependence exists when two or more groups depend on one another for inputs.
A) Cognitive
B) Sequential
C) Reciprocal
D) Pooled
C) Reciprocal
A​ firm's ________ specifies who reports to whom.
A) boundary spanner
B) line of authority
C) value network
D) span of control
B) line of authority
Which of the following statements is true regarding​ decentralization?
A) European multinational organizations tend to be decentralized.
B) The U.S. Military is a highly decentralized organization.
C) In a decentralized organization the decision making authority resides with only a few individuals.
D) A highly informal organization is always decentralized
A) European multinational organizations tend to be decentralized.
The​ ________ structure is one of the most common types because it separates the specialized knowledge of each functional area through horizontal differentiation and can direct that knowledge toward the​ firm's key products or services.
A) division
B) customer
C) functional
D) product
C) functional
The division structure can be viewed as an extension of a​ ________structure.
A) bureaucratic
B) customer
C) product
D) functional
C) product
The​ ________ structure is a contemporary structure that uses the value chain concept.
A) network
B) division
C) functional
D) product
A) network
Which of the following best represents the practice of taking a significant activity within the organization and contracting that activity out to an independent​ party?
A) outsourcing
B) creating strategic alliance
C) exporting
D) licensing
A) outsourcing
Which of the following statements is true regarding environmental​ complexity?
A) Geographic complexity does not have a significant affect on environmental complexity.
B) Complex environments have lower breadth and depth of differences than simple environments.
C) A larger number and greater diversity of competitors produce more complex environments.
D) Economic condition is the most important factor that affects environmental complexity.
C) A larger number and greater diversity of competitors produce more complex environments.
If an organization is operating in a​ "white water" environment then it means that the organization is operating in​ ________.
A) a dynamic environment
B) an environment that has limited geographic scope
C) a highly stable environment
D) an environment with a small number of suppliers
A) a dynamic environmen
In an international​ context, an organization that uses a matrix structure will most likely have​ ________.
A) low foreign sales and low product diversification
B) high foreign sales and low product diversification
C) low foreign sales and high product diversity
D) high foreign sales and high product diversity
D) high foreign sales and high product diversity
In an international​ context, an organization with low foreign sales and high international product diversity is most likely to use the​ ________ structure.
A) worldwide product division
B) matrix
C) international division
D) geographic
A) worldwide product division
Anyone can exhibit acts of leadership behavior in an organization.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Which of the following is true in terms of​ leadership?
A) Effective leadership often suppresses the potential that resides in other people.
B) The lesser the degree of purely voluntary actions by followers toward the​ leader's intended​ direction, the more effective the leadership.
C) Leadership behavior is limited to persons holding designated leadership positions.
D) A manager is likely to lose the trust of employees if​ he/she does not abide by the ethical principles of the company.
D) A manager is likely to lose the trust of employees if​ he/she does not abide by the ethical principles of the company.
Modern organizations are increasingly differentiating between the roles or managers and leaders.
A) True
B) False
B) False
Leadership is a very important component of​ management, but management is more than just leadership.
A) True
B) False
A) True
________ is a type of position power granted to a person by the organization.
A) Personal power
B) Legitimate power
C) Referent power
D) Expert Power
B) Legitimate power
Expert power is​ ________.
A) based on a​ manager's rank in an organization
B) a type of position power granted to a person by the organization
C) type of personal power gained when people are attracted​ to, or identify​ with, that person
D) based on specialized knowledge not readily available to many people
D) based on specialized knowledge not readily available to many people
________is an awareness of​ others' feelings and a sensitivity to​ one's own emotions and the ability to control them.
A) Emotional sensitivity
B) Intelligence quotient
C) Social intelligence
D) Emotional intelligence
D) Emotional intelligence
Which of the following indicates task behavior in a​ leader?
A) recognition of​ subordinates' efforts
B) trust and confidence in subordinates
C) concern for​ subordinates' welfare
D) scheduling of work
D) scheduling of work
The​ "harmony" requirement involves traditional values that support the acceptance of​ hierarchies, conformity, and deference to authority.
A) True
B) False
B) False
________ is the concept whereby a leader is regarded as the provider who will take care of the subordinate in return for responsible behavior and performance.
A) Paternalism
B) Adultism
C) Obscurantism
D) Ageism
A) Paternalism
A high use of leadership behaviors is the best solution for all managerial problems.
A) True
B) False
B) False
A neutralizer of leadership is any aspect of the organization or work situation that can hinder the exercise of leadership.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Which of the following influence tactics is being put to use when the agent encourages the target to suggest improvements in a proposal or to help plan an​ activity?
A) exchange
B) consultation
C) personal appeal
D) pressure
B) consultation
When using​ ingratiation, the agent​ ________.
A) explains how carrying out a request or supporting a proposal will benefit the target personally or help advance the target​ person's career
B) uses praise and flattery before or during an influence attempt or expresses confidence in the​ target's ability to carry out a difficult request
C) offers an​ incentive, suggests an exchange of​ favors, or indicates willingness to reciprocate at a later time if the target will do what the agent requests
D) makes an appeal to values and ideals or seeks to arouse the target​ person's emotions to gain commitment for a request or proposal
B) uses praise and flattery before or during an influence attempt or expresses confidence in the​ target's ability to carry out a difficult request
Anger, contempt,​ enthusiasm, envy,​ fear, frustration, and​ disappointment, joy, and love are all examples of which of the​ following?
A) Moods
B) Emotions
C) Affect
D) Emotional intelligence​ (EI)
E) Emotional contagion
B) Emotions
​________ is a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as​ excitement, alertness, and elation at the high​ end; and​ contentedness, calmness, and serenity at the low end.
A) Emotional labor
B) Positive affect
C) Emotional contagion
D) Negative affect
E) Emotional intelligence​ (EI)
B) Positive affect
Sympathy for the suffering of​ others, guilt about our own​ behavior, and anger about injustice are examples of which of the​ following?
A) Emotional intelligence
B) Illusory correlation
C) Positivity offset
D) Moral emotions
E) Affect intensity
D) Moral emotions
Research shows that emotions have which of the following effects on rational​ thinking?
A) Emotions are irrelevant to rational thinking.
B) Emotions replace rational thinking.
C) Emotions suppress rational thinking.
D) Emotions deter rational thinking.
E) Emotions are critical for rational thinking.
E) Emotions are critical for rational thinking.
Individual differences in the strength with which people experience emotions are known as which of the​ following?
A) Negative affect
B) Illusory correlation
C) Affect intensity
D) Positivity offset
E) Emotional dissonance
C) Affect intensity
A​ person's tendency to associate events in a​ cause-and-effect relationship that have no real connection is known as which of the​ following?
A) Negative affect
B) Positivity offset
C) Illusory correlation
D) Emotional dissonance
E) Affect intensity
C) Illusory correlation
Expressing feelings that benefit the organization during an interpersonal transaction at work is known as which of the​ following?
A) Deep acting
B) Displayed emotions
C) Emotional dissonance
D) Surface acting
E) Emotional labor
E) Emotional labor
Emotions that are required to be shown for a given job are known as which of the​ following?
A) Emotional labor
B) Deep acting
C) Surface acting
D) Emotional dissonance
E) Displayed emotions
E) Displayed emotions
Which of the following theories states that workplace events cause emotional reactions in workers which then influence the​ workplace?
A) Affective events
B) Surface acting
C) Deep acting
D) Emotional labor
E) Emotional dissonance
A) Affective events
Which of the following is directly influenced by a​ worker's emotional reactions to what he or she encounters on the​ job?
A) Illusory correlation
B) Emotional contagion
C) Job performance
D) Affect intensity
E) Emotional intelligence
C) Job performance
Which of the following describes a​ person's ability to perceive emotions in the self and others as well as regulate​ one's emotions​ accordingly?
A) Illusory correlation
B) Emotional intelligence
C) Emotional dissonance
D) Emotional contagion
E) Emotional labor
B) Emotional intelligence
Genetics seems to have a strong influence on which of the​ following?
A) Emotional contagion
B) Emotion regulation
C) Emotional intelligence
D) Emotional labor
E) Emotional dissonance
C) Emotional intelligence
Which of the following describes how the process by which​ people's emotions influence the emotions of​ others?
A) Emotional labor
B) Emotional contagion
C) Emotional intelligence
D) Emotion regulation
E) Emotional dissonance
B) Emotional contagion
Which of the following best describes the difference between emotional labor and emotional​ dissonance?
A) Emotional labor is displaying emotions because your job requires you to do​ so; emotional dissonance is the tension between your displayed and felt emotions.
B) Emotional labor is the set of emotional responses that you actually​ feel; emotional dissonance is the set of emotional responses that you display.
C) Emotional labor is the work you do while you are​ upset; emotional dissonance is the work you do while you are happy.
D) Emotional labor is the set of emotional responses that you​ display; emotional dissonance is the set of emotional responses that you actually feel.
E) Emotional labor is the tension between your displayed and felt​ emotions; emotional dissonance is displaying emotions because your job requires you to do so.
A) Emotional labor is displaying emotions because your job requires you to do​ so; emotional dissonance is the tension between your displayed and felt emotions.
Which of the following is not recommended as a way managers can improve​ employees' moods?
A) Using humor
B) Showing anger about injustice
C) Giving employees small tokens of appreciation
D) Selecting positive team members
E) Sharing positive emotions
B) Showing anger about injustice
As a result of​ ________, managers who select positive team members find that positive moods are transmitted from team member to team member.
A) Emotional labor
B) Emotional contagion
C) Emotional intelligence
D) Emotion regulation
E) Emotional dissonance
B) Emotional contagion
A​ ________ is typically defined as a set of​ people, limited in number who have some degree of interaction and shared objectives.
A) community
B) coalition
C) group
D) team
C) group
Which of the following is a characteristic of a​ team?
A) coordinated interaction
B) not a group
C) voluntary membership
D) voluntary interaction
A) coordinated interaction
A(n) ________ is a group whose members consist of a supervisor or manager and all those who report to that person.
A) command group
B) informal group
C) committee
D) task force
A) command group
A(n) ________ is one whose members choose to interact voluntarily with one​ another, not by organizational mandate.
A) task force
B) formal group
C) informal group
D) committee
C) informal group
The first stage of group development is​ ________.
A) norming
B) storming
C) forming
D) performing
C) forming
________ is that stage in group development where at least a minimum amount of consensus about the​ group's issues begins to appear.
A) Performing
B) Storming
C) Forming
D) Norming
D) Norming
The phenomenon of reduced effort per person in​ larger-size groups is called​ ________.
A) social inhibition
B) social loafing
C) social facilitation
D) audience effect
B) social loafing
Which of the following is an effect of​ norms?
A) wide variation in individual behavior
B) increased quality and quantity of group interactions
C) decreased probability of groupthink
D) greater conformity by group members
D) greater conformity by group members
One of the advantages of a​ self-managing work group is that there is​ ________.
A) increased creativity within the group
B) decreased costs
C) increased speed of communication
D) more​ team-like behavior
D) more​ team-like behavior
Increased speed of communication is a potential advantage for​ ________, which are composed of individuals who do not work together in close physical proximity.
A) cross-functional groups
B) self-managing work groups
C) global teams
D) virtual teams
D) virtual teams
​Knowledge, as a team​ competency, refers to​ ________.
A) the necessary understanding of​ facts, concepts,​ relations, and underlying relevant information necessary to perform team tasks
B) relatively stable feelings and beliefs about something
C) highly developed behavioral and cognitive​ capabilities, such as emotional​ intelligence, that are necessary to carry out team tasks and meet team goals
D) acquiring new​ behaviors, skills,​ values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information
A) the necessary understanding of​ facts, concepts,​ relations, and underlying relevant information necessary to perform team tasks
As a team​ competency, ________​ refer(s) to highly developed behavioral and cognitive​ capabilities, such as emotional​ intelligence, that are necessary to carry out team tasks and meet team goals.
A) learning
B) knowledge
C) skills
D) attitudes
C) skills
​________ is differences of opinion about the procedures a group uses to achieve its goals.
A) Relationship conflict
B) Substantive conflict
C) Process conflict
D) Task conflict
C) Process conflict
Which of the following is a potential cause of task and process​ conflicts?
A) differences in values
B) scarcity of resources to accomplish the​ group's goals
C) dissimilarities in the composition of the membership of the group
D) differences in the interpersonal styles of individual members
B) scarcity of resources to accomplish the​ group's goals
Teams and groups are static parts of organizations.
A) True
B) False
B) False
In order to ensure that a group exerts enough effort to accomplish tasks at acceptable levels of quantity and​ quality, managers need to​ ________.
A) obtain appropriate coaching and consultation assistance
B) develop appropriate group structures
C) develop appropriate support from the organization
D) obtain sufficient knowledge and skills
B) develop appropriate group structures
Which of the following is an interpersonal barrier to communication?
A) stereotyping
B) hierarchical barriers
C) individual differences
D) ethnocentrism
C) individual differences
Stereotyping means _____________.
A) An existing set of attitudes that provides quick ways to interpret complex messages
B) the overall difference between two cultures' basic characteristics
C) the tendency to oversimplify and generalize about groups of people
D) the belief in the superiority and importance of ones own group
C) the tendency to oversimplify and generalize about groups of people
Which of the following should be considered while improving one's listening skills?
A) being open-minded
B) simplifying language
C) understanding audience
D) organizing writing
A) being open-minded
Apathy is identifying with and understanding the other persons feelings, situation, and motives.
A) true
B) false
B) false
When the negotiation situation is one where there is a formally appointed negotiation team, managers take on the role of a facilitator
A) true
B) false
B) false
Which of the following, if true, would be one way of achieving effective negotiations?
A) focusing on two parties' positions, not interests
B) subduing the atmosphere of collaboration
C) focusing on the problem and not the people involved
D) enhancing competition between the two parties
C) focusing on the problem and not the people involved
When a business depends largely on the quality of service and information, the critical assets of the company are more tangible rather than intangible
A) true
B) false
B) false
Managers with better human resource skills place themselves squarely in a superior position for upward movement and greater opportunities and responsibilities
A) true
B) false
A) true
Although the organization can facilitate managerial​ communication, it also can be one of the key sources of barriers to communication.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Encoding is​ ________.
A) non-transmission of a message
B) transmission of a message
C) interpreting a message
D) constructing a message
D) constructing a message
Noise refers to​ ________.
A) the act of interpreting a message
B) the method or means of transmission for a message
C) interference with the transmission or decoding of a message
D) the act of constructing a message
C) interference with the transmission or decoding of a message
Which of the following is an advantage of oral​ communication?
A) precision
B) decreased misinterpretation
C) more emphasis on meaning
D) commands attention
D) commands attention
One of the advantages of written communication is that​ ________.
A) it lays more emphasis on meaning
B) it decreases misinterpretation
C) it commands attention
D) it is easy to ignore
B) it decreases misinterpretation
Providing suggestions and requesting clarifications is a part of​ ________.
A) informal communication
B) downward communication
C) lateral communication
D) upward communication
D) upward communication
Which of the following is a characteristic of an informal communication​ channel?
A) It defines who has responsibility for information dissemination.
B) Information flow in this channel can be very fast.
C) There can be minor to severe consequences for ignoring this channel.
D) It is​ authorized, planned, and regulated by the organization.
B) Information flow in this channel can be very fast.
Human resource departments are rarely involved in strategy formulation these days
A) true
B) false
B) false
The fit of a firms human resource activities with its strategy and environment heads to competitive advantage for the organization and for the individual manager
A) true
B) false
A) true
A _________ is a list of duties and capabilities required for the job while __________ describes the skills, experience, and education that a candidate should have to perform a job
A) job specification; bona fide occupational qualification
B) job description; job specification
C) job description; bona fide occupational qualification
D) job specification; job description
B) job description, job specification
Employment agencies ______________.
A) usually are not cost effective for low-level and low-paying jobs
B) are rarely used to identify individuals for senior management positions
C) should be used in tandem with employee referrals
D) are mostly used by small-scale and startup firms
A) usually are not cost effective for low-level and low-paying jobs
Which of the following is the most widely used selection technique?
A) work simulations
B) interviews
C) assessment centers
D) work sampling
B) interviews
At Motorola, technical writing job candidates are given a piece of equipment, shown how to use it, given time to practice using it, and then are required to write a technical description of the equipment and an operation Manuel. Which of the following methods of recruitment is represented by this example?
A) work simulation
B) written test
C) interview
D) assessment center
A) work simulation
Which of the following is one of the first opportunities for an organization to shape the expectations and behavior of new employees?
A) orientation
B) conceptual training
C) off-the-job training
D) on-the-job training
A) orientation
_____________ is the most widely used training techniques in organizations
A) off the job training
B) technical training
C) conceptual training
D) on the job training
D) on the job training
Performance appraisals should _____________.
A) be conducted in an informal manner
B) be carried out in a quarterly basis
C) establish performance standards and objectives
D) focus on providing more positive than negative feedback
C) establish performance standards and objectives
Communicating effectively is easy because it is done everyday.
A) True
B) False
B) False
Graphic rating scales are __________.
A) time consuming
B) complex to analyze
C) easy to complete
D) difficult to tabulate
C) easy to complete
The most common element of any pay structure is the ____________.
A) wage
B) variable compensation
C) at-risk compensation
D) bonus
A) wage
At-risk compensation is also referred to as ___________ compensation
A) variable
B) cafeteria style
C) broadband
D) structured
A) variable
The __________ requires US firms to abide by the same non discrimination laws relative to their US personnel overseas as their US employees residing in the United States
A) civil rights act of 1991
B) sarbanes-oxley act
C) uniform commercial code
D) federal employers liability act
A) civil rights act of 1991
An employment criterion that has a direct and material impact on job performance and outcomes is a(n) ___________.
A) glass ceiling
B) affirmative action
C) bona fide occupational qualification
D) critical incident
C) bona fide occupational qualification