19 terms

APII LAB Endocrine System

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Endocrine Systems
• Second major control system of the body. Vital towards
maintenance of homeostasis.
• Functions in integration of body cells by working with the
nervous system.
• Acts more slowly than the nervous system by using
chemical messengers called hormones
• Hormones are secreted into the blood. They travel through
the blood to reach the cells of a specific organ or organs. These cells are called the hormone's target cells.
Glands
a group of cells or an organ that produces a secretion
for use in the body or surroundings
Hormones
Long-distance chemical messengers that travel
through either the blood or lymph
Target Cells
The cells within an organ that respond to a
particular hormone.
What are the 2 classes of Hormones called?
Amino Acid Based & Steroid
Hypothalamus
•The major controller of endocrine glands
•Coordinates the autonomic nervous system
and anterior pituitary
•Controls homeostatic systems (body
temperature control, thirst, hunger, etc)
•Involved in sleep and emotion control
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) is made up of two glands. What are they?
Anterior Pituitary and Posterior Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary
Controls the activity of many other endocrine
glands Sometimes called the mater endocrine gland
Posterior Pituitary
Not technically an endocrine gland because it does
not synthesize its own hormones Acts as a storage unit for 2 neurohormones
What are the 3 glands found in the Endocrine system?
Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid Gland
Thymus, Adrenal Gland, Pancreas, The Gonads
Pineal Gland
•Produces melatonin
Peaks at night making us drowsy Lowest at noon
Thyroid Gland
•Regulates growth and development via metabolic
rate
Parathyroid Gland
•Regulates the body's calcium levels
Thymus
•Involved in the development of T lymphocytes
and the immune response
•Begins to atrophy at puberty & is inconspicuous
by old age
Adrenal Gland
•Release a hormone mix of epinephrine and
norepinephrine
•The hormones released act with the sympathetic
nervous to produce the fight or flight response
Pancreas
•Functions as an endocrine gland and an
exocrine gland
•Produces digestive enzymes
•Also produces insulin and glucagon involved
in blood sugar level regulation
The Gonads
•The endocrine and exocrine functions of the gonads
begin at the onset of puberty
Ovaries
Female gonads Produces the steroid hormones estrogen and
progesterone
These hormones promote the development of the female reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics, and regulate the menstrual cycl
Testes
Male gonads Produce testosterone This hormone promotes the development of the male
reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics,
sperm production, and sex drive