96 terms

Chapter 2 (Density)
Chapter 3 (Pressure; Pascal's Principle; Gas Laws [Boyle's Law; Charles' Law; ***-Lussac's Law])
Chapter 4 (Moles/Molar Mass)
Chapter 8 (Molarity)
Chapter 9 (pH)
Chapter 10 (Nuclear Decay)
Chapter 11 (Speed or Velocity; Acce;eration)
Chapter 12 (Newton's 2nd Law; Weight; Law of Universal Gravitation)
Chapter 13 (Work; Power; Mechanical Advantage; Gravitational Potential Energy; Kinetic Energy; Efficiency)
Chapter 14 (Temperature Conversions; Specific Heat)
Chapter 15 (Wave Sp…

Density =

mass ÷ volume

Units for Density, mass and Volume

mass: grams or kilograms

volume: mL, L, or cm³

Density: g/mL, g/cm³, kg/L

volume: mL, L, or cm³

Density: g/mL, g/cm³, kg/L

Density Equation Rerarranged:

mass = Density × Volume

Volume = mass ÷ density

Volume = mass ÷ density

Pressure =

Force ÷ Area

Units for pressure, force, and area

force = Newton (N)

area = (meter)²

pressure = N / m² or pascal (Pa)

area = (meter)²

pressure = N / m² or pascal (Pa)

Pressure Equation Rearranged:

Force = Pressure x Area

Pascal's Principle:

If pressure is transmitted in a container with an enclosed fluid, the pressure increases at all points by the same amount. Small forces applied to a small area will produce a large force applied to a large area.

Applications of Pascal's Principle:

Hydraulic lifts for motor vehicles, brake systems in all motor vehicles.

Pascal's Principle Equation:

Pressure₁= Pressure₂

F₁/ A₁ = F₂/ A₂

F₁/ A₁ = F₂/ A₂

Boyle's Law

For gases, the Pressure applied is inversely proportional to the Volume of a gas, as long as the temperature and amount of gas remains constant,

If pressure is increased then the volume will decrease; if pressure decreases then the volume of the gas will expand.

If you start with certain conditions of pressure and volume (P₁ & V₁) and change the conditions of pressure and volume (P₂ & V₂) then...

If pressure is increased then the volume will decrease; if pressure decreases then the volume of the gas will expand.

If you start with certain conditions of pressure and volume (P₁ & V₁) and change the conditions of pressure and volume (P₂ & V₂) then...

Boyle's Law Equation:

P₁x V₁= P₂x V₂

Boyle's Law Equation Rearranged:

P₂= (P₁x V₁) ÷ V₂ P₁= (P₂x V₂) ÷ V₁

V₂= (P₁x V₁) ÷ P₂ V₁= (P₂x V₂) ÷ P₁

V₂= (P₁x V₁) ÷ P₂ V₁= (P₂x V₂) ÷ P₁

Charles's Law

For gases, the Temperature applied is directlyproportional to the Volume of a gas, as long as the pressure and amount of gas remains constant,

If temperature is increased then the volume will increase; if temperature decreases then the volume of the gas will decrease as well.

If you start with certain conditions of temperature and volume (T₁ & V₁) and change the conditions of temperature and volume (T₂ & V₂) then...

If temperature is increased then the volume will increase; if temperature decreases then the volume of the gas will decrease as well.

If you start with certain conditions of temperature and volume (T₁ & V₁) and change the conditions of temperature and volume (T₂ & V₂) then...

Charles's Law Equation

V₁ ÷ T₁ = V₂ ÷ T₂

Charles's Law Equation Rearranged:

V₂= (V₁x T₂) ÷ T₁ V₁= (V₂x T₁) ÷ T₂

T₂= (V₂x T₁) ÷ V₁ T₂= (V₁x T₂) ÷ V₂

T₂= (V₂x T₁) ÷ V₁ T₂= (V₁x T₂) ÷ V₂

Gay-Lussac's Law

For gases, the Pressure applied is directly proportional to the Temperature of a gas, as long as the volume and amount of gas remains constant,

If temperature is increased then the pressure will increase; if temperature decreases then the pressure of the gas will also decrease.

If you start with certain conditions of pressure and volume (P₁ & T₁) and change the conditions of pressure and volume (P₂ & T₂) then...

If temperature is increased then the pressure will increase; if temperature decreases then the pressure of the gas will also decrease.

If you start with certain conditions of pressure and volume (P₁ & T₁) and change the conditions of pressure and volume (P₂ & T₂) then...

Gay-Lussac's Law Equation

P₁ ÷ T₁ = P₂ ÷ T₂

Gay-Lussac's Law Equation Rearranged:

P₂= (P₁x T₂) ÷ T₁ P₁= (P₂x T₁) ÷ T₂

T₂= (P₂x T₁) ÷ P₁ T₂= (P₁x T₂) ÷ P₂

T₂= (P₂x T₁) ÷ P₁ T₂= (P₁x T₂) ÷ P₂

Moles → Mass

To convert from the moles of something to the mass (in grams) you need to multiply by the molar mass.

Molar Mass =

the mass (in grams) of one mole. For elements on the periodic table, the molar mass is equal to the atomic mass. Except that the units for atomic mass are a.m.u's (atomic mass units), whereas the units for molar mass are grams/mol.

Mass =

Moles x Molar Mass

Moles =

Mass ÷ Molar Mass

Molarity

is the quantification of the concentration of a solution, expressed in terms of moles of solute (the substance that is dissolved) per liters of solution (volume of solute & solvent mixed together)

Molarity (M) =

moles Solute ÷ Liters Solution = mol / L

pH Values

pH is a term used to describe the relative strength of a acidic or basic solution

Acid Solutions -

have pH value between 0 and 7. The lower the pH number the stronger (more concentrated) the acid solution.

Basic Solutions -

have pH value between 8 and 14. The higher the pH number the stronger the base solution.

pH Equation =

- log [concentration of H+ ions]

pOH =

- log [concentration of OH- ions]

Nuclear Decay -

as a nucleus of an atom of an element disintegrates (decays) it discharges particles from the nucleus in order to become a more stable nucleus of an entirely different element.

Nuclear Decay Equation: Alpha Particle

Nuclear Decay Equation (Beta)

Speed or Velocity -

is equal to the distance travelled (usually in meters or kilometers) divided by the amount of time taken (usually in seconds or hours)

Speed Equation =

distance ÷ time

Units for Speed, distance and time

distance = meters or kilometers

time = seconds or hours

speed = meters / second (m/s) or kilometers / hour (km/hr)

time = seconds or hours

speed = meters / second (m/s) or kilometers / hour (km/hr)

Speed Equation Rearranged:

distance = speed x time

time = distance ÷ speed

time = distance ÷ speed

Acceleration -

is the rate at which an object's speed / velocity changes. Acceleration can be positive (increase in velocity) or negative (decrese in velocity)

Acceleration Equation =

(Final Velocity - Starting Velocity) ÷ time

Units for Acceleration, velocity and time

velocity = meters / second

time = seconds

acceleration = meters / (second)²

time = seconds

acceleration = meters / (second)²

Acceleration Equation Rearranged:

Final Velocity = (Acceleration x time) - Starting Velociy

Starting Velocity = (Acceleration x time) + Final Velociy

time = (Final Velocity - Starting Velocity) ÷ acceleration

Starting Velocity = (Acceleration x time) + Final Velociy

time = (Final Velocity - Starting Velocity) ÷ acceleration

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion

States that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force that is applied to that object, and indirectly proportional to the object's mass

Newton's 2nd Law Equation =

Force = mass x acceleration

Units for force, mass and acceleration

Force = Newton (N) or kg x m/s²

mass = kilograms (kg)

acceleration = m/s²

mass = kilograms (kg)

acceleration = m/s²

Newton's 2nd Law Equation Rearranged:

mass = Force ÷ acceleration

acceleration = Force ÷ mass

acceleration = Force ÷ mass

Weight -

an object's weight is directly proportioal to its mass

an object's weight also depends on the acceleration due to gravity.

an object's weight also depends on the acceleration due to gravity.

Acceleration due to Gravity (aka "g") depends on...

the mass of an object. Our solar system's star (our sun) has more mass than all of the planets combined, therefore it has more "g" than the planets. This is why the planets stay in orbit around the sun.

Earth's "g" =

9.8 m/s²

Weight Equation =

mass x "g"

Weight and Force are both measured in -

Newtons.

This is because both equations are measuring the force applied to an object.

In the force equation the acceleration is supplied by something other than gravity.

In the weight equation the acceleration is supplied solely by gravity.

This is because both equations are measuring the force applied to an object.

In the force equation the acceleration is supplied by something other than gravity.

In the weight equation the acceleration is supplied solely by gravity.

Why does something on the Earth's Moon weigh less than that same thing does on Earth?

Because the Earth's Moon has less... "g"

Work -

the transfer of energy from one physical system to another expressed as the product of a force and the distance through which it moves a body in the direction of that force; "work equals force times distance".

If a force is applied, but the object does NOT move - then NO work is done

If a force is applied, but the object does NOT move - then NO work is done

Work Equation:

Work = Force x distance

Units of work, force and distance

Force = Newtons

distance = meters

Work = Newton-Meters (N-m) or Joules (J)

distance = meters

Work = Newton-Meters (N-m) or Joules (J)

Work Equation Rearranged:

Force = Work ÷ distance

distance = Work ÷ Force

distance = Work ÷ Force

Power

(physics) the rate of doing work

Ex. measured in watts (= joules/second)

Ex. measured in watts (= joules/second)

Power Equation =

Power = Work ÷ time

Units for power, work and time

work = Joules (J) or Newton-meters (N-m)

time = seconds

Power = Newton-meters / second or Joules / second or watts (w)

time = seconds

Power = Newton-meters / second or Joules / second or watts (w)

Power Equation Rearranged:

Work = Power x time

time = Work ÷ Power

time = Work ÷ Power

Ideal Mechanical Advantage

a quantity that measures how much a simple machine multiplies force or distance (ignoring friction)

Ideal Mechanical Advantage =

Output Force ÷ Input Force or Resistance Force ÷ Effort Force

Output Force is

the weight of the object to be moved or the force exerted by a machine. Sometimes called the Resistance Force.

Input Force is

the amount of force used by the operator of a machine. Sometimes called the Effort Force.

Mechanical Advantage =

Input Distance ÷ Output Distance

Input Distance is

the distance that the operator has to move the object. Sometimes called the Effort Distance.

For a wheel and axle this is the distance that the wheel travels.

For an inclined plane this is the length of the ramp/inclined plane.

For a pully system this is the length of the rope used to pull up or let down a weight/resistance force/output force.

For a wheel and axle this is the distance that the wheel travels.

For an inclined plane this is the length of the ramp/inclined plane.

For a pully system this is the length of the rope used to pull up or let down a weight/resistance force/output force.

Output Distance is

the distance the output force is exerted through.

For inclined planes this is the vertical distance that the weight/resistance travels.

For a wheel and axle it is the distance travelled by the axle.

For a pulley system it is the vertical distance travelled by the weight/resistance force/output force.

For inclined planes this is the vertical distance that the weight/resistance travels.

For a wheel and axle it is the distance travelled by the axle.

For a pulley system it is the vertical distance travelled by the weight/resistance force/output force.

Gravitational Potential Energy (G.P.E.)

energy stored by objects due to their position above Earth's surface; depends on the distance above Earth's surface and the object's mass

GPE Equation:

Gravitational Potential Energy = mass x height x acceleration due to gravity

GPE = m h g

GPE = m h g

Units for energy, mass, height and "g"

energy = Joules (J)

mass = kilograms (kg)

height = meters (m)

"g" (on Earth) = 9.8 m/s²

mass = kilograms (kg)

height = meters (m)

"g" (on Earth) = 9.8 m/s²

G P E Equation Rearranged:

mass = GPE ÷ (height x 9.8 m/s²)

height = GPE ÷ (mass x 9.8 m/s²)

"g" (if not on Earth) = PGE ÷ (mass x height)

height = GPE ÷ (mass x 9.8 m/s²)

"g" (if not on Earth) = PGE ÷ (mass x height)

Kinetic Energy (K.E.)

the energy an object has due to its motion

Kinetic Energy Equation:

KE = 1/2 (mass) x (velocity)²

Units for kinetic energy, mass and velocity

KE = Joules (J)

mass = kilograms (kg)

velocity = meters / second (m/s)

mass = kilograms (kg)

velocity = meters / second (m/s)

Kinetic Energy Equation Rearranged:

mass = 2KE ÷ v²

velocity = √2KE ÷ mass

velocity = √2KE ÷ mass

Temperature Conversions -

there are three main temperature scales that are used by most high school science students:

Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion:

⁰F = 1.8 (⁰C) + 32⁰

Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion:

⁰C = (⁰F - 32⁰) ÷ 1.8

Celsius to Kelvin Conversion:

K = ⁰C + 273

Kelvin to Ceksius Conversion:

⁰C = K - 273

Kelvin to Fahrenheit Conversion:

ºF = (K - 273) 1.8000 + 32.00

Fahrenheit to Kelvin

ºK = [(ºF - 32) ÷ 1.8] + 273.15

Specific Heat

The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 kg of a substance to change its temperature by 1°K. Each substance has its own unique specific heat value.

Specific Heat Equation:

Energy (Q) = specific heat (c) x mass (kg) x change in temp. (∆ T)

Units for energy, specific heat, mass, and temperature

Energy = Joules

Specific Heat = Joules/kg x K

mass = kilograms

change in temperature = ⁰C or K

Specific Heat = Joules/kg x K

mass = kilograms

change in temperature = ⁰C or K

Specific Heat Equation Rearranged:

Specific Heat (c) = Energy ÷ (mass x ∆ T)

Mass = Energy ÷ (specific heat x ∆ T)

∆ T = Energy ÷ (specific heat x mass)

Mass = Energy ÷ (specific heat x ∆ T)

∆ T = Energy ÷ (specific heat x mass)

Wave Speed

The speed at which a wave travels through a medium (usually air or water). It is the product of wavelength and frequency.

Wave Speed Equation:

Wave Speed = frequency (ƒ) x wavelength (λ)

Units for wave speed, frequency and wavelength

Wave Speed = meters / second

frequency = 1/s (Hertz - Hz)

wavelength = meters

frequency = 1/s (Hertz - Hz)

wavelength = meters

Wave Speed Equation Rearranged:

frequency = Wave Speed ÷ wavelength

wavelength = Wave Speed ÷ frequency

wavelength = Wave Speed ÷ frequency

Ohm's Law

the law that states that resistance in an electrical circuit is equal to the voltage divided by current.

Ohm's Law Equation:

Resistance (R) = voltage (V) ÷ current (I)

Units for resistance, voltage and current

resistance = ohms (Ω)

voltage = volts (v)

current = amperes (A)

voltage = volts (v)

current = amperes (A)

Ohm's Law Equation Rearranged:

Voltage = Resistance x Current

Current = Voltage ÷ Resistance

Current = Voltage ÷ Resistance

Electric Power -

rate at which electrical energy is converted into other forms of energy;

Electric Power Equation

Power (P) = current (I) x voltage (v)

Power (P) = I²•R = V ² / R = I•V

Power (P) = I²•R = V ² / R = I•V

Units for power, current and voltage

Power = watts

Current = amps

Voltage = volts

Current = amps

Voltage = volts

Electric Power Equation Rearranged

I = P / V

V = P / I

R = P / I²

V = P / I

R = P / I²