24 terms

Chemistry Lab Exam 1

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All single bonds
base + -ane
Any double bonds
base + -ene
Any triple bonds
base + -yne
3 types of isomers
-Structural
-Conformational
-Cis/Trans
Structural Isomer
Isomer where you move break bonds in a molecule and move atoms around. You only use the atoms you have and make a new shape
Conformational
Isomer where you rotate around a single bond.
-Staggered
-Eclipsed
Which is more stable: Staggered conformation or Eclipsed Conformation?
Staggered Conformation
Why is staggered more stable than eclipsed?
Eclipsed electrons are closer together than staggered, causing a stronger negative charge, thereby causing repulsion between the electrons.
Tetrahedral Geometry
4 areas of electron density around atom
Planar Trigonal Geometry
3 areas of electron density around atom
Linear Geometry
2 areas of electron density around atom
Isomers of hexane
-hexane
-2-methylpentane
-3-methylpentane
-2,2-dimethylbutane
-2,3-dimethylbutane
Different methods for identifying organic compounds
-melting points
-boiling points
-solubility
Coumarin
Rat posion, anticoagulant
Vanillin
food additive, flavoring
Benzophenone
sunscreen, plastics, insecticide
Why does cyclohexane have a higher boiling point than hexane?
Cyclohexane has more bonds and more points of contact than hexane.
Melting point vs. Boiling point
Melting point: solid to liquid
Boiling point: liquid to gas
Polar substance
a substance where there is a definite separation of charge due to unequal attraction, resulting in a dipole
Nonpolar substance
a substances that shares electrions equally and therefore has no dipole
Polarity of Graphite
Nonpolar
Polarity of water
Polar
Polarity of Charcoal lighter fluid
Nonpolar
Polarity of ethyl alcohol
Polar